IMPACT OF WESTERN EDUCATION IN THE TEACHING OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Western education is a system originated from the west and penetrated to the world after Islamic education in the earliest 15th century. Its main approach was the modernization of social life through science and technological advancement (Farid, 2005). Western system of education was first propagated by the missionaries and promoted by colonialist to different part of the globe, in their view for westernization and globalization in the name of modernity. It is a complete secular system that differentiated life and religion and focuses on materialism. It’s also rationalistic in its quest for knowledge as relied more on human ability of reason than spiritual inspiration. The preparation made to man in this system was very limited as it fall short in training only the body and the physique in this fair of life, therefore the modern western system does not consider the relationship between God and human as socially or intellectually relevance, hence revelation or the revealed knowledge, they are ignored even when modern secular subjects are introduced in the curriculum for the traditional older system (Rosnani, 2004).
However, Islamic education is simply translated as ‘tarbiyyah al Islamiyyah’. It contained a concept of “ta alim” (instruction), tahadhib (rear or sustain) and other sub concepts like hikmah (wisdom), Adl (justice) Amanah (trust) and as the extreme is Khilafah (vicegerancy) and Ibadat (worship). The main sources in this type of education are the Quran and Hadith. Islamic education connotes whole life approach and signifies complete integration into man’s life, it emanation can be trace to the existence of man on earth of the holy Quran. It is the true system that first takes man from the darkness of ignorance and illiteracy to the light of knowledge and education, it shapes so many relevance and advantages not only to Muslims but to entire humanity. Islam faces education as an act of worship and a life long process (Hashim, 2004). Therefore, its philosophy, method, content and general curriculum are towards human successful integrative life. Education is an art that allows humans to accumulate every leaving experience in their life and subsequently transmit to a new generation. In Islam, the actual education which are required are the content of Quran and Hadith, because these are the motivations which derives the Muslim community so as to place due importance on advancement of knowledge which is borne out from the Quran and Hadith. Islamic education can also be defined as a process of nurturing and training of the mind, the physique and the spirit of human based on Islamic values which are sourced from the Quran and Sunnah. It is intended to bring forth humans who are God conscious and subservient only to Allah (Nor, 2012).
However, the Islamic education left many legacies to the west as it recorded a tremendous achievement in architecture, history, philosophy, medicine and all branches of liberal and natural sciences. The scientific and technological advancement of the modern world owe a lot to the research conducted by the Muslimscientist, Islamic education also predate the western education in Nigeria and Malaysia just as Islam has a longer history than Christianity in the world. In Nigeria, western education has greatly influenced the teaching of Islamic education considering the fact that most Islamic schools now adopt some western approach of education.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The secular system considers education as an engine for development; it sees education as the instrument of life, and believed for education as a means of individual and national development. It also viewed education as an element of continuous and harmonious human existence and wellbeing just as the case in Islamic world view. However, we may wish to consider Islamic education as a system of education, which entails ideological concept expounding the very nature of life (here and after), and prescribing the position of man and his role on earth. It is important to note that Islamic education is not synonymous with Islamic studies, which is just a subject in the Nigerian western-oriented educational system. The basic discernible difference is that Islamic studies is an academic subject offered in a formal school setting. Western education started winning popularity as a result of the patronage. Nasiru (1977) advances some other reasons for the prosperity of the Western education in Nigeria, namely, the payment of a monthly salary to the teachers from the parent body of the mission abroad, as against the economically strapped Mallamswho depended on voluntary gifts from the public as a means for their survival. Also the free education programme of the Christian missionaries towards western education development was elaborate than that of the Muslims, as they received financial and moral aid from Europe and could afford to give out books, slates, and writing materials freely to the students. In addition to this, appointments into government offices were made from the rank and file of school leavers and not the students of Islamic schools. On graduation, they could only perform at Islamic social gatherings like naming, marriage and burial programmes. However, the researcher seeks to analyze the impact of western education in the teaching of Islamic education.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to examine the impact of western education on the teaching of Islamic education and the following are the specific objectives:
- To examine the impact of western education on the teaching of Islamic education.
- To identify the differences between western education and Islamic education.
- To examine the factors that favour western education over Islamic education.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the impact of western education on the teaching of Islamic education?
- What are the differences between western education and Islamic education?
- What are the factors that favour western education over Islamic education?
HO: Western education does not influence the teaching of Islamic education
HA: Western education does influence the teaching of Islamic education
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- This study will be useful for the general public has it will enlighten on how western education has influenced the teaching of Islamic education by considering the factors that gave western education popularity over the Islamic education.
- This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on the impact of western education on the teaching of Islamic education will cover all the activities that promoted the fast growth and adoption of western education by the general public. This study will also consider its impact on the teaching and general output of Islamic education.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Education: the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school
Western: originating from the West, in particular Europe or the United States. "Western society"
Farid S. A (2005). from Jamiah to University. multiculturalism and Christian Muslim dialogue. International sociological association, National University Singapore.
Hashim R. (2004). educational dualism in Malaysia. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.
Nasiru, W.O.A. (1977), "Islamic Learning Among the Yoruba (1896-1963)". An unpublished Doctoral Thesis of the Dept. of Arabic and Islamic Studies, University of Ibadan. Ibadan.
Nor. A, (2012), "The Impact of Colonialism on the Muslim Educational System". Al-Tawhid, Vol. IV. No. 3.
Rosnani E.A (2004). The Missionary Impact of Modern Nigeria. London: Longman.