1.1   Background to the Study

Organizations are established with the primary goal of achieving specific objectives. The human factor plays a crucial role in mobilizing and utilizing various elements such as performance appraisals, employee motivation, job satisfaction, compensation, training and development, job security, and organizational structure, among others, to attain the desired performance of the organization. Employee motivation, in particular, is a key focus area for this study, as a well-motivated workforce is considered essential for high-level organizational performance. Scholars have dedicated significant resources to researching the techniques and secrets of motivating employees for optimal performance (Ejere, 2010).

In organizations, lack of motivation among employees can contribute to the failure to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Employee motivation is, therefore, crucial for the successful advancement of an organization. The performance of individual employees is integral to the overall organizational performance, emphasizing the importance of understanding and implementing effective employee motivation strategies. Different employees in various organizations may be motivated differently, with leaders, managers, or administrators employing intrinsic or extrinsic motivation techniques to inspire them to act in ways that enhance job performance.

Motivation involves processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward goals, while employee performance encompasses individual behaviors contributing to the achievement of organizational objectives (Greenberg and Baron, 2003). Several studies exploring the relationship between employee motivation and performance indicate a positive correlation between the two (Nelson and Quick, 2003; Ololube, 2006; Abejirinde, 2009; Baibata, 2010; Sharma and Chaudhary, 2012).

Traditionally, extrinsic factors such as salary and promotions were considered primary incentives for increasing employee performance. However, there has been a shift in today's workplace from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation. Employees are increasingly motivated by the satisfaction derived from their work, a sense of achievement, and the intrinsic value of the work itself, rather than solely external or financial rewards (Cole 1996; Drucker, 2002; Olusola, 2011).

Employee rewards can take the form of financial or non-financial incentives, or a combination of both. Adequate compensation is crucial to motivating employees for greater performance (Gunu, 2005). However, the effectiveness of different types of rewards varies among individuals. While some argue that intrinsic factors such as job satisfaction and a sense of doing something worthwhile are stronger motivators once pay exceeds a subsistence level (Fery, 1997), there are mixed findings in the literature regarding the effectiveness of financial versus non-financial rewards in increasing employee performance.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The civil service in Nigeria has long been plagued by inefficiency and low output, prompting public discourse for over two decades. Civil servants face numerous difficulties in the discharge of their duties, including poor and irregular pay and a lack of rewards to motivate and enhance their performance (Ejumudo, 2014; Behn, 2003). This study aims to investigate these challenges and provide measures for job motivation and satisfaction in the Akwa Ibom State civil service, with the goal of improving employee performance.

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1.3   Objectives of the Study 

The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of motivation and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service. However, the specific objectives are to:

  1.     i.        Examine the relationship between pay reward and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service. 
  2.   ii.        Ascertain the relationship between employee recognition and performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service. 
  3. Examine the relationship between work environment and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil service. 
  4.  iv.        Investigate the relationship between staff development affects employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil service. 


1.4   Research Questions 

The following research questions were raised to guide the study objectives: 

  1.     i.        Does pay reward affect employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?
  2.   ii.        Does employee recognition affect performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?
  3. Does conducive work environment affect employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil service? 
  4.  iv.        Does staff development affect employee performance in Akwa Ibom State  civil service? 


1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

Ho. There is no significant relationship between pay reward and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service

Ho: There is no significant relationship between employee recognition and performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service. 

Ho: There is no significant relationship between conducive work environment and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service. 

Ho: There is no significant relationship between staff development and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

1.6   Significance of the Study  

  • The outcome of this study will be of immense benefits to students, government and more specifically Akwa Ibom state Civil servants.
  • Policy makers in the three tiers of government will find the recommendations that will follow in the study very useful because it will give sufficient insight into the issues of motivation and employee performace in Civil Service.
  • The government will see the need to take the issue of reward, both financial and non financial very serious and improve productivity in civil service.  
  • This study will also enlighten employees on the issues of motivation in civil service so that they are properly guided on what they should expect from their employers to reduce tendency for conflict between them and their employers. High productivity and output demand that work environment be harmonious.
  • Finally, students and researcher will also benefit from the study because it will serve as a base data for those who might want to carry out further studies in the area.  


1.7   Scope and Limitations of the Study

Primarily, the research is aimed at the impact of motivation and employee performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service. The study is also designed to cover the staff of Akwa Ibom State Internal Revenue Board.

The research is limited by certain factors like;

  1. Time factor: not enough time to study the whole ministries in Akwa Ibom Civil Service.
  2. Finance: lack of funds to carry out the research  
  3. Most contacted people failed to give some reasonable and prudent information for the conduct of the research


1.8   Organization of the Study

          This work is organised in five chapters

Chapter one is all about the introduction of the study, background to the study, statement of the problem. Objectives of the study, research question, research Hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, organization of the study, and the definition of terms.

          Chapter Two reviews related literature which is divided into the conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical framework.

          Chapter Three discusses the research methodology which brings to bare the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sampling techniques, sources of data, the main instrument, validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument and the data analysis techniques.

         Chapter Four presents the data, analysis interpretation of data.

          Chapter Five entails the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.


1.9.  Definition of terms

Employee Performance

Employee performance is defined as whether a person executes their job duties and responsibilities well. Many companies assess their employee's performance on an annual or quarterly basis in order to define certain areas that need improvement. Performance is a critical factor in organizational success.


Employee Recognition

Employee recognition is “the action or process of recognising or being recognised ”. Recognition can be delivered on behalf of the company to an individual, by a manager or more powerfully by peers who witness the great contribution of their fellow employees every day. If recognition is given consistently and frequently it has a significant impact on employee performance, engagement and overall behaviour.


Staff Development

Staff development can be viewed as the activities and programs (formal or informal ) that help staff members learn about responsibilities, develop required skills and competencies necessary to accomplish institutional and divisional goals and purposes, and grow personally and professionally to prepare themselves for advancement in the institution.


Motivation: Motivation by definition refers to what activates, directs human behaviour and how this behaviour is sustained to achieve a particular goal. Also it can be defined as the set of processes that arouse, direct and maintain human behaviour towards attaining some goals. Jones (1955) argues that” Motivation is concerned with how behaviour gets started, is energised, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is presenting the organisation while all this is going on. “Gibson, Ivancevick, and Donnelly (Organisations: processes, structure, behaviour Pp214).