1.1      Background to the Study


Assessing the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the performance of the banking sector is a crucial area of study in finance and economics. Mergers and acquisitions have been pervasive in the banking industry, shaping its landscape globally. Understanding the implications of these strategic moves on the overall performance of banks is essential for policymakers, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders. This introduction aims to provide an overview of the assessment of the impact of M&A activities on banking sector performance, focusing on key factors such as financial performance, market share, efficiency, risk, and regulatory implications. Berger, A. N., & Humphrey, D. B. (1997).


Firstly, analyzing the financial performance of banks post-M&A is fundamental. Scholars and practitioners have extensively examined various financial metrics such as profitability, liquidity, and solvency to gauge the effectiveness of M&A strategies in enhancing or diminishing the financial health of merged entities. Moreover, studies delve into market share dynamics resulting from M&A activities, investigating whether consolidations lead to increased market power or competition within the banking sector. DeLong, G. L., & Ryngaert, M. D. (1993).


Secondly, efficiency gains or losses associated with M&A transactions are crucial considerations. Assessing cost synergies, economies of scale, and operational efficiencies resulting from consolidations provides insights into the overall efficiency of merged banks. Additionally, the impact of M&A on risk profiles, including credit, market, and operational risks, is a focal point of research. Understanding how M&A activities influence risk-taking behavior and risk management practices is imperative for ensuring the stability and resilience of the banking sector. Houston, J. F., & Ryngaert, M. D. (1994).


Furthermore, the regulatory environment plays a significant role in shaping the outcomes of M&A in the banking sector. Regulatory authorities often scrutinize M&A transactions to ensure compliance with antitrust laws and to safeguard consumer interests. Studies examining the regulatory implications of M&A on banking sector stability, competition, and systemic risk shed light on the broader implications of these transactions on financial markets and the economy at large. Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (2003).Top of Form

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1.2      Statement of the Problem

The assessment of the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on banking sector performance represents a critical research problem in finance and economics. Despite the prevalence of M&A activities in the banking industry, there exists a need for comprehensive analysis to understand the multifaceted implications of these strategic moves. One key aspect of this problem is the lack of consensus regarding the net effect of M&A transactions on the financial performance of banks. While some studies suggest that M&A activities lead to enhanced efficiency, profitability, and market share for merged entities, others point to potential drawbacks such as increased risk exposure and regulatory challenges. Berger, A. N., & Humphrey, D. B. (1997).


Moreover, the dynamics of M&A in the banking sector pose additional challenges for researchers and practitioners. The complex interplay of market competition, regulatory oversight, and technological advancements further complicates the assessment of M&A impact. Understanding how different factors interact to shape the outcomes of M&A transactions in banking is essential for informing strategic decision-making by banks, regulators, and policymakers. Therefore, elucidating the nuances of this problem is crucial for advancing knowledge in the field and providing insights into optimizing M&A strategies for sustainable banking sector performance. DeLong, G. L., & Ryngaert, M. D. (1993).Top of Form

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1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine Assessment of the Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Banking Sector Performance. Specific objectives of the study are:

  1. 1.  To evaluate the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the financial performance of banks, such as profitability, capital adequacy, and efficiency ratios.
  2. 2.  To assess the impact of M&As on bank competition and market concentration within the banking sector.
  3. To analyze the post-merger integration process and its influence on customer satisfaction, employee morale, and overall bank stability.

1.4 Research Questions

To guide the study and achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. 1.  Do M&As in the banking sector lead to significant improvements in profitability, measured by indicators like return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA)?
  2. 2.  To what extent do M&As affect banking sector competition, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and the number of effective competitors?
  3. How does the post-merger integration process impact customer satisfaction, employee morale, and the bank's risk profile, as measured by non-performing loan ratios and capital adequacy ratios?


1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following research hypothesis was developed and tested for the study:

Ho: There is no statistical significant relationship between Mergers and Acquisitions and Banking Sector Performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is important for many reasons. The following are the major stakeholders this paper through its practical and theoretical implications and findings will be of great significance:

Firstly, the paper will benefit major stakeholders and policy makers in the Banking sector. The various analysis, findings and discussions outlined in this paper will serve as a guide in enabling major positive changes in the industry and sub-sectors.

Secondly, the paper is also beneficial to the organizations used for the research. Since first hand data was gotten and analysed from the organization, they stand a chance to benefit directly from the findings of the study in respect to their various organizations. These findings will fast track growth and enable productivity in the organisations used as a case study.

Finally, the paper will serve as a guide to other researchers willing to research further into the subject matter. Through the conclusions, limitations and gaps identified in the subject matter, other student and independent researchers can have a well laid foundation to conduct further studies.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is delimited to Diamond-Access Merger. Findings and recommendations from the study reflects the views and opinions of respondents sampled in the area. It may not reflect the entire picture in the population.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The major limitations of the research study are time, financial constraints and delays from respondents. The researcher had difficulties combining lectures with field work. Financial constraints in form of getting adequate funds and sponsors to print questionnaires, hold Focus group discussions and logistics was recorded. Finally, respondents were a bit reluctant in filling questionnaires and submitting them on time. This delayed the project work a bit.

1.9 Organization of the Study

The study is made up of five (5) Chapters. Chapter one of the study gives a general introduction to the subject matter, background to the problem as well as a detailed problem statement of the research. This chapter also sets the objectives of the paper in motion detailing out the significance and scope of the paper.

Chapter Two of the paper entails the review of related literature with regards to corporate governance and integrated reporting. This chapter outlines the conceptual reviews, theoretical reviews and empirical reviews of the study.

Chapter Three centers on the methodologies applied in the study. A more detailed explanation of the research design, population of the study, sample size and technique, data collection method and analysis is discussed in this chapter.

Chapter Four highlights data analysis and interpretation giving the readers a thorough room for the discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of data analyzed in the study.

Chapter Five outlines the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Based on objectives set out, the researcher concludes the paper by answering all research questions set out in the study.





Berger, A. N., & Humphrey, D. B. (1997). Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research. European Journal of Operational Research, 98(2), 175-212.

DeLong, G. L., & Ryngaert, M. D. (1993). The long‐run stock price performance of firms with effective Ticker symbols. The Journal of Finance, 48(2), 755-777.

Houston, J. F., & Ryngaert, M. D. (1994). The overall gains from large bank mergers. Journal of Banking & Finance, 18(6), 1155-1176.

Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (2003). Stock market driven acquisitions. Journal of Financial Economics, 70(3), 295-311.

Stiroh, K. J. (2004). Diversification in banking: Is noninterest income the answer? Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 36(5), 853-882.