Gender inequality is one of the most pressing issues which have been publicly repeated through society for decades. In spite of the zeal to resolve it, this problem still lingers on.   Worldwide, about 60 percent and half a billion women and girls are unable to get the nutritious food they need to live a healthy and active life. There is no gainsaying that women play an indispensable role in strengthening their families and communities and in the economic development in their countries.

There has been a lot of advocacy by both the government and civil societies making a case for training the girl child and providing equal opportunities over the years (Abendroth et al., 2017Connell et al., 2020). Over time, with the advent of western education, exposure and enlightenment, there is a need to see how the gap caused by inequality and discrimination against women has been bridged and to what degree. In Nigeria, women dominate the unpaid job sector, twice the figure for men. The economic value of females was projected to be about 30% of the gross national product (UNDP, 2015). Like other parts of the world, women in Nigeria face several discriminations that limit their full capacity.

Nigeria’s population  is  higher  than any other country  in  Africa,  with  a whooping  population  of  above 186 million. Nigeria is the 7th most populated country in the world (Ogbuabor&Onuigbo, 2018). It is apposite to state that 49% of these huge population size are females. In  comparative  terms,  38%  of  women in  Nigeria  are  without formal education, as against 25% for men and only 4% of women can boast of higher education, against 7% of their  male  counterpart.  Nigeria  is  rated  118  out  of  134  countries  in  the  Gender  Equality  Index  (GEI) (Egbulonu&Eleonu 2018).


Women are discriminated more when it comes to access to employment opportunities, access to finance and condition of work among others. This situation, has resulted in the reduction in economic growth as well as its determinants (Ewubare&Ogbuagu 2017)

Women in Nigeria are classified as belonging to the secondary market sector of labour, which mostly requires no skill and little or no training at all. In this labour category to which women belong to, there are no obstacles to job mobility due to the poor wages and terms of conditions of the job making such jobs very unattractive. As far as women are concerned, there is lack job security and prospects for promotion. This cannot be said of men, who belong to the primary market sector of labour, which is made up of high-grade, high-status, better paid jobs and better terms of working condition (Ewubare&Ogbuagu 2017).



Article 1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) states that ‘‘all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood’’. Every person is regarded to enjoy economic, social and cultural rights. This provides protection for the dignity, freedom and well being of all individuals in a state. Both women and men have worked simultaneously to build the society.

However, women are far from enjoying equal rights in the labour market mainly due to religion, customs, race, domestic burden, job segregation, low level of educational attainment, poverty, biases against women’s employment in certain sectors of the economy or kinds of jobs and discriminatory salary practices.


Out of this numerous challenges women face in the workplace job segregation seems to be the most pressing of them all. In many societies there is a widespread belief that men are simply better equipped to handle certain tasks. Most of the time, those are the highest paying jobs. This discrimination has lead to patriarchy which has placed women in the back role.



The main purpose of this study is to identify the effects of gender inequality on women employment opportunities in Babcock University. The specific objectives are:

1. To clarify gender inequality.

2. To examine the challenges of gender inequality in Babcock university.

3. To examine the various institutional response of gender inequality.

4. To examine the international legal framework of gender inequality.



1. What is gender inequality?

2. What are factors affect gender inequality in Babcock University?

3. Institutional response of gender inequality?

4. To what extent has the international legal frameworks that support gender equality been effective?





The significance of this study is to help create awareness on gender inequality going on in Nigerian organizations and to help policy makers to understand the challenges women face.

It helps to regulate legal protections under the law; women are less likely to be protected from domestic, sexual and economic violence. These forms of violence affect a woman's safety, freedom and productivity. Increasing women's legal rights keeps them safe and increases employment opportunities to live happy and productive lives.



The approach for this study will be based on quantitative method; the quantitative method includes interviews, which is the primary source. Secondary sources include information from books, journals, articles newspapers, internet materials and past projects.



This study intends to cover the period of 2015-2021 which witnessed a great amount of gender inequality in Nigeria. The study will trace the challenges faced by women in Babcock University. The study will also examine the legal framework put in place for women; and finally look at the various institutional responses on gender inequality.



Gender: It is the characteristics of women that are socially constructed.

Gender inequality: It is the social process by which men and women are not treated equally.

Employment: Is an agreement between an individual and another entity that specifies the responsibilities, payment terms and arrangements, rules of the workplace and is recognized by the government.

Opportunity: It is a chance for employment or promotion of a woman.



This study will be organized into five chapters.

The first chapter is the introduction which will contain the background of study, statement of the problem, objective of study, research question, significance of study, research methodology, scope of study, operational definition of terms and finally organization of study.

Chapter two contains the review of relevant related literature on the major variables of the study which will be handled in different sub-heading. This chapter will also adopt a theoretical framework to support the research work.

Chapter three will focus on methodology.

Chapter four will focus on data analysis and discussion of findings.

Chapter five will be summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.