1.1 Background of the Study
The decision-making process is a crucial aspect of management in various organizations, ranging from small businesses to multinational corporations, whether in the private or public sector. This holds true for the Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation, where top management plays a central role in decision-making responsibilities.
In the 21st century, decision-making processes are undergoing significant changes due to global shifts in factors such as globalization, urbanization, value orientation, and technological advancements. The proficiency of employee decision-making now determines competitive advantage. Consequently, considering the holistic social system participation of all components within an organization is essential.
Examining the organizational structure reveals employees positioned as the foundation supporting the managerial hierarchy. Effiong (2009) describes employees as individuals facilitating the successful implementation of decisions made by top management and enhancing organizational efficiency during transitions. Employees are responsible for executing the fundamental aspects of organizational affairs and serving as a vital link connecting organizational decisions (in the form of policies) with the public. This underscores the crucial role of employees in translating goals into tangible outcomes and emphasizes the importance of their active participation for organizational growth.
Employee participation in decision-making refers to the extent to which employees are allowed or encouraged to share in the organizational decision-making process. Scholars argue that such participation has the potential to enhance staff morale and support, increase employee satisfaction and motivation, foster innovation, and reduce inefficiency. Granting decision-making power closer to the point of delivery can facilitate successful implementation.
Various measures enable employee participation in organizational decision-making, including interpersonal relationships between top and lower management, delegation of responsibilities by top management, and leadership. These measures contribute to creating a sense of belonging among workers and fostering a conducive environment for both management and workers to contribute voluntarily to a healthy industrial relationship. Cotton's assertion that there is a close link between organizational effectiveness and individual effectiveness further supports this premise.
Unfortunately, some top managers adopt paternalistic and authoritarian attitudes during decision-making processes, excluding employees from the decision-making process. This approach, as noted by Steinheider et al. (2006), may lead to job dissatisfaction, a lack of organizational commitment, and strained labor-management relationships, ultimately reducing productivity.
Non-participation of employees in decision-making processes may result in a lack of commitment to service delivery, demotivation, and reduced productivity. However, some argue that employee participation in decision-making is a waste of time, lowers efficiency, and weakens management effectiveness. These divergent views prompted the researcher to examine the impact of non-employee participation in decision-making at the Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Similar to many government-owned parastatals and corporations, decision-making at the Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation has been a subject of discussion. The exclusion of employees from the decision-making process has created a gap in the administration, leading to a strained relationship between management and staff. This lack of involvement in decision-making has resulted in non-conformity at work, evidenced by employees' indifference, tardiness, subpar program features, and the unnecessary repetition of uninteresting programs.
The decision to ignore employees' input, as seen in a case study where staff were not consulted in the selection of department heads, has contributed to a lackadaisical attitude towards work. Additionally, issues such as poorly managed and uninspiring programs further compound the challenges faced by the Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation. Consequently, the researcher seeks to address the factors contributing to these problems, questioning whether the ineffective participation of employees in decision-making is a key factor in these issues. This inquiry serves as the foundation for the current study.
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1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study is focused on examining the impact of non-employee participation in decision making at Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation.
Other specific objectives include:
- To ascertain the level of communication flow between the management and staff of Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation.
- To find out the role of employees in the decision making process at Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation.
- To find out the extent staff-management relationship affects decision making process at Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation.
- To determine the problem associated with non-staff participation with management in decision making at Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation.
- To suggest or recommend an improved pattern of staff-management relationship in decision-making.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised:
- What is level of communication flow between the management and staff of Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation?
- What is the role of employees in the decision making process at Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation?
- What is the extent the staff-management relationship affects decision making process at Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation?
- What is the problem associated with non-staff participation with management in decision making?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The research null hypothesis formulated for the study is
Ho1: staff relationship with the management does not significantly affect decision making process of the Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant in the following ways;
- To the students of management and other related fields, the study of decision-making process is very important and cannot be undermined. It could provide a working literature to the understanding of the subject matter. It would also provide a basis of learning for lecturers and other practitioners in the field of management.
- The study is relevant in advancing the course of effecting decision making process in an organization, where such has been a challenge to the organization.
- It would also be relevant to other business organisations which might want to be effective and responsible in his business.
- It would also provide statistical data to organization which might need information on decision-making.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is limited to the impact of non-employee participation in decision making at the Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation, Uyo. It examined issues of managerial effectiveness as a result of decision making process, interrelationship between management and staff of the organization, the effect of non-inclusion of employees in the decision making process of the organization, and other related issues that affect the process of effective decision making at the Akwa Ibom State Broadcasting Corporation, Uyo.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
i) Financial constraints on the part of the researcher in carrying out an extensive research work.
ii) Limited time constraint hinders elaborate work.
(a) It was assumed that the data collected were true and valid to the extent to which they were retrieved from the respondents.
(b) It was also assumed that the data were accurate and the information therein was relevant for the study filled and returned for proper analysis.
(c) It was also assumed that more than fifty percent of the questionnaire would be returned.
1.10 Organisation of the Study
This research was written in a systematic way and arranged into five chapters, each chapter dealing with specialized area of the study. In chapter one, the areas covered were the introduction, statement of the problem, research questions, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, assumptions, organisation of the study, definition of terms, and lastly historical background of the company.
Chapter two deals with a review of related literature, the research methodology were presented in chapter three. It also explained the method of collecting, presenting and determination of the data that were analyzed. Chapter four was concerned with presentation analysis and interpretation of data presented in the tables. Chapter five deals with the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
1.11 Definition of Terms
1. Decision-making: This is the process of selecting a course of action from available alternatives (Noah, 2008).
2. Productivity: A measure of output compared to the input in an organization (Noah, 2008).
3. Management: A body responsible for the decision making process and other coordinating activities in organization (Noah, 2008).
4. Non-employee participation: Not involving the employees in the decision making process (Armstrong, 2002).