1.1 Background of the Study:
In contemporary times, many institutions employ various incentives to motivate their employees, thereby enhancing job performance. Job performance evaluates how well an individual carries out their assigned tasks through effort and skills. It is a crucial criterion for organizational outcomes and success, as emphasized by Lawler (2003), who states that the success and survival of any organization depend on how workers are remunerated and rewarded. Rewards, in particular, play a significant role in fostering commitment and influencing workers' performance.
Education, considered an instrument "par excellence" for national development according to the national policy on education, serves as the bedrock of a nation's socio-economic institutions. Tertiary institutions in Nigeria, such as universities, are established to contribute significantly to societal development by providing relevant high-level manpower training, instilling proper values, promoting scholarship and community service, fostering national unity, and acquiring physical and intellectual skills. Effective job performance by non-academic staff in tertiary institutions can be achieved through employee incentive packages, including good remuneration, which, according to Maimona (2011), has a direct impact on organizational productivity and service delivery.
Non-academic staff, distinct from academic staff, encompasses roles such as administrative, clerical, and support staff within an academic environment. Their performance is influenced by various factors, including monetary benefits, recognition, feedback, participation, performance appraisal, compensation, job satisfaction, training, organizational structure, job security, and staff motivation. Motivation, in this context, refers to the internal and external factors driving individuals to be actively engaged and committed to their job.
Incentives, both monetary and non-monetary, play a crucial role in motivating employees to exert greater effort and maintain desired behaviors. Incentive pay, a form of compensation tied to job performance, is employed by organizations to encourage employees to utilize their skills effectively. Non-monetary incentives, such as recognition, feedback, and other non-financial rewards, have been shown to be more effective tools in the workplace than monetary incentives.
The study focuses on non-academic staff at the University of Uyo, where job performance is perceived to be below average. The lack of an effective reward system, coupled with the overwhelming volume of tasks and the absence of essential tools, contributes to this subpar performance. This study aims to explore the impact of job incentives on the job performance of non-academic staff at the University of Uyo.
Statement of the Problem:
Organizations face the challenge of motivating their employees, particularly non-academic staff, to improve job performance. The assumption is that both monetary and non-monetary incentives play a significant role in enhancing job satisfaction and performance. However, global socio-economic challenges make it challenging for organizations to meet employees' demands for appropriate incentive schemes. In the University of Uyo, poor motivation, inadequate compensation, and lack of relevant incentives have contributed to a decline in non-academic staff commitment and job performance. This study aims to investigate the influence of job incentives on the job performance of non-academic staff at the University of Uyo.
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1.4 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of job incentives on job performance on job performance of non-academic staff in university of Uyo.
Specifically, this study sought to determine
- Whether monetary benefits has any relationship with job performance of non-academic staff.
- Whether recognition has any relationship with job performance of Non-academic staff.
- Whether feedback has any relationship with job performance of
- Whether participation in decision making has any relationship with job performance of Non - academic staff.
1.5 Research questions
The following research questions were posted to guide the study.
- To what extent does monetary benefits relate to job performance of non-academic staff?
- To what extent does recognition relate to job performance of non- Academic staff?
- To what extent does feedback relate to job performance of non - academic staff?
- To what extent does participation in decision making influence job performance of non - academic staff?
1.6 Statement of hypothesis
The study is guided by the following null hypothesis:
- There is no significant relationship between monetary benefit and job performance of non-academic staff.
- There is no significant relationship between recognition and job performance of non-academic staff.
- There is no significant relationship between feedbacks and Job performance of non-academic staff.
- There is no significant relationship between participation and job performance of non-academic staff.
1.7 Significance of the study
The research paper is an attempt to identify and highlight job incentives and job performance of non - academic staff in University of Uyo. The findings of this study will be very significant to Academic institutions, employers, government, policy makers, students and researchers.
To Academic institution, this study will be of great value to all academic institution especially tertiary institutions (Public and Private), findings of this study will contribute to the understanding of how the management of the institution can stimulate creativity and foster in its Staff / Non-academic staff the desire to succeed and to achieve self-fulfillment through their work. In other words, it will help the institution identify and address some of the sensitive issues. Such as monetary benefits, feedback, recognition, participation, training on job performance among academic staff/ non - academic staff.
Employers can use it to develop and establish firm ideas that will bring about further development and it will give them reasons to utilize monetary and non - monetary incentives to motivate their employees to achieve organizational goals.
The findings of this study would provide insight on how the government can find fresh ways of motivating Civil Servant with relevant benefits and rewards.
The findings of this study would enable policy makers to see the need to formulate the policies that would ensure that workers are paid salaries and are commensurate for their efforts.
The study will serve as a guide and reference material to students and researcher who intend to carry out a research, read or write more on this topic.
1.8 Assumptions of the study
The following assumptions were used for this study
- The instrument used was reliable and valid
- Job incentives differ from one department or unit to another
- Job performance of non-academic staff can be measured
1.9 Scope of the study
The study on job incentives and job performance of non-academic staff in University of Uyo is carried out on full time workers that are working in the institution. The research does not involve students and academic staff.
The study is also limited to the following sub-variables, monetary benefits, recognition, and feedback for independent variables. The variable was job performance.
1.10 Limitations of the study
This study was short sleeved by the un-co-operating attitude of the respondents. Inadequate finance for intensive research evaluation as well as locating all non-academic staff limited the coverage of the research area. Not all the respondent were disposed to respond at the time of its administration.
1.11 Definition of terms:
For purpose of clarity and understanding,the following terms are used in this study as defined here:
- Job incentives: This is a system of rewarding success and effort in the work place by allowing employee to earn prize or recognition for a job well done.
- Job performance: Is the assessment of whether an employee has done their job well. It is defined as the overall expected value from employees' behaviors carried out over the course of a set period of time (Motowidlo, Borman,& Schmidt, 1997).
- Non-academic staff: Includes all classified and unclassified staff position within the department including but not limited to the administration assistant and secretarial staff. It is also defined as employees within an academic or vocational environment whose jobs do not involve teaching.