1.1. Background to the Study
Education in its ideal frame of mind is committed to the realization of positive changes in the society. The importance of education is to educate, mobilize, radicalize, revolutionalize and sensitize individuals for those behaviours that are conducive for progress and harmonious living (Ake, 2015). Education helps to inculcate positive attitudes and qualities in individuals that will enable them to acknowledge their limitations while at the same time belt up or crave to transcend their limitations (Ajayi, 2018). Individuals who have acquired the right education are perceived to be of great assets to their societies in all spheres. Education is important in the life of everyone but more so to persons with hearing impairment because it provides basic skills demanded in work place by employees (Fgatabu, 2017). Education contributes and enhances expansion of employment opportunities, equity and economic growth as stipulated.
Education is an essential factor that helps in the development of a human being. Every child basic right is to learn and develop to his or her full potentials through equal access to quality education inspite of their age, gender, origin ethnicity and social background (Nakopia, 2011). Education being an indispensable tool in nations building is a process of systematic training and instruction designed to transmit knowledge and acquisition of skill, potentials and abilities which will enable an individual to contribute efficiently to the growth and development of his society and nation. It involves all round development of an individual physically, socially, morally, intellectually, and mentally (Peisner & Feinberg, 2015).
Role of Teachers in Education
The teacher with his professional ability is a relevant factor in training and preparation of didactic and methodical plans, organizes and carries out work on student learning. Brown explains that teachers can have different roles such as controller, director, manager, facilitator, and as a resource, and concludes that the key to interactive teaching is to play towards the upper, non-directive end of the continuum, gradually enabling your students to move from their roles of total dependence to relatively total independence (Brown, 2017). Teachers and students working together to learn and build knowledge. The widespread use of information and communication technologies enables them to create knowledge. Therefore, the broad concept of teachers’ roles has already changed.
Aside from the primary role of lesson planning and classroom instruction, teachers are taking on other roles in education, which are: working with politicians, colleagues, and community members to set clear and obtainable standards for our students; participating in the decision making that helps to deal with the problems that affect our students learning; and mentoring new teachers and getting them ready to teach the youth of today (Cox, 2014). In addition, according to McGhee and Kozma (2016), teachers role in education as well involves, promoting active and autonomous learning in students; to provide students with competencies and technological skills that allow them to search for, organize, and analyze information, and communicate and express their ideas in a variety of media forms; enable teachers, students, and their parents to communicate and share information on-line; engage students in collaborative, project-based learning in which students work with other classmates on complex, extended, real world-like problems or projects; and to provide students with individualized or differentiated instruction, customized to meet the needs of students with different achievement levels, interests, or learning styles (McGhee & Kozma, 2016).
Impact of Teachers Behaviour on Student
The impact of teacher’s behaviour plays an important role in the academic achievement of students. Behaviour is a description of the observable outcome of teacher and student performance in different activities of institutions (Derk, 2018). Behaviour may be positive or negative and effective or ineffective. Students spend several hours in school during a schools year and their high interaction with their teachers can have an influential impact on shaping good manner and behavior in them and can be source of their educational advancement. Wallace (2015) showed that teacher's behavior which is accompanied with feeling of hope, generosity, respect, and joy becomes effective in modifying and improving the conduct by the delinquent students who have had previous bad records. Crowley (2016) showed when specific aspects of student-teacher relationships and interaction are respected, when teachers have an adjustable conduct and avoid rigid and inflexible methods, students accept them as a friend and companion. Houghton, Wheldall, Jude, & Sharp, 2015) showed in their study that when teacher's praising and appreciation of the student is increased at an individual level, positive effects are seen on the student's behavioral and educational performance. The adaptability of the teacher-student relation and selecting a suitable policy for changing and improving unsuitable behaviors, has positive impact on the students' attention to the educational activities system (Parsa, 2016; Kyle, 2011; Jones & Versilind, 2013; Wallace, 2015).
Teachers Interpersonal Competence
Teachers’ interpersonal competence is the ability of a teacher to interact with students for better transmission of knowledge. It is the relationship through which teachers interact with group of students with an aim of fulfilling the classroom task (Cavazos, 2013). The role of interpersonal communication skills is seen from the teachers’ ability to master various forms of skills which includes speaking skills, classroom control, teaching techniques and the use of effective communication. In the context of teaching and learning, communication skills have become an important aspect that needs to be mastered as the process of communication will happen by itself when there is interaction between two individuals (Bee, 2015). According to Kenneth (2013), teachers with interpersonal competence will have more advantages in creating more effective learning situation. Someone with communication skills is capable and has the potential to influence someone and effective communication strategies can dominate and produce success (Guerrero, & Kory, 2011). Teachers must be skilled at listening to their students as well as explaining things clearly. Teachers must be able to adapt their methods of communication to all students regardless of ability or learning style. Effective communication includes transforming the boring into the interesting and having good presentation skills (Silver, 2017).
Good communication skills of teacher are the basic need of academics success of students, and professional success of life. Teacher communicates more instructions orally in classroom to students. Teacher with poor communication skills may cause failure of students to learn and promote their academics. Student need to understand that what is right, and what is wrong while it totally depend upon the communication skills of teachers which he adopt in class-room (Sherwyn, Michael, & Pearson, 2000). Good communications minimize the potential of unkind feeling during the process of teaching. For learning the learner must be attentive toward their teacher during the lecture. Loss (2000) recommended that teacher communicate in clear and understandable manner. Communication is a dynamic process which need of mind and courage to face the other and convey his/her massage in effective way. Communication process is successful when we deliver the message in clear and understandable way. Effective communication need to convey and accept his/her massage in all kind of situation and circumstances. Good communication is considered a strong tool `for effectiveness in the teaching profession (Monika, NA)
How it Affects Students Development
Student’s development is a dynamic phenomenon as there are a number of different factors that affect a student’s development. Such effect of each of these factors varies from student to student and context to context. One specific factor that has received attention from Ulug, Ozden, and Eryilmaz (2016) is the teacher’s attitude towards the student at hand. The authors argued that a student’s motivation, attitude towards school, their willingness to do homework and confidence in their learning behavior are all a factor of the teacher’s attitude of teaching towards the students. These instrumental factors collect together to shape a pupil’s personality over time, therefore, argue the authors, that teacher’s attitude has long lasting impact on the student, well beyond his or her academic career. In their research, the authors have strongly recommended teachers to offer support to their students in their learning, and for this, they have advised teachers to create an environment of positive expectations. On the other hand, many teacher's negative conducts such as: referring the rude and undisciplined students to school principal, sending them out of class and making them stay in the hall-way, carelessness and neglecting the students' serious problems had an undesired effect on the students behaviors. Lack of discipline in classroom or school causes many difficulties for children and youngsters and could be source of their failure. This failure can also be observed in the teacher's work and level of nervousness (Gary, 2013).
Student development is the integration of academic learning programs with the larger issues of personal improvement and individual growth. It is a student centered, holistic experience focused on understanding (and demonstrating) values, nurturing skills, and moving towards knowledge (Mike, 2012). Rodgers (1990) sees student development as the ways that a student grows, progresses, or increases his or her developmental capabilities as a result of enrollment in an institution of higher education. Student development aims to take into account the cultural nature of learning, including the social, emotional, motivational, cognitive, developmental, biological, and temporal contexts in which learning occurs, in order to support the well-rounded development of the whole person (National Academies of Science, 2018; Walker, 2013).
How students learn in a given moment, term, course, or degree experience is inextricably tied to the developmental, environmental, and individual contexts in which that learning occurs for each student. According to Ajayi and Afolabi (2016), in teaching the following are factors that could help a teacher understand how students develop, which are: understanding student behavior and interactions; setting developmentally appropriate expectations; providing appropriate levels of challenge and support; designing learning experiences relevant to developmental stages and norms; making informed decisions about course content and teaching strategies; creating inclusive learning environments for the developmental, cultural, contextual, and historical diversity of learners; increasing the likelihood for student engagement; and supporting students in navigating their developmental journeys.
Teacher should support students’ growth by challenging the beliefs that characterize their current development levels, particularly about the nature of knowledge, the role of authorities, and the procedures that should be used to make judgments. The level of challenge should be tempered so as to not paralyze students, and should be paired with appropriate support (Felder & Brent, 2010). Spur students’ transition away from reliance on peers and authority figures and toward self-authorship and independent thought by providing validating feedback about students’ potential, situating learning in the learner’s own experience, and defining learning as mutually constructed (Magolda & King, 2011). Encourage self-reliance in students by requiring students to take an active role in their own learning and to learn from one another (Freeman, Anderman, & Jensen, 2014). Anticipate developmentally-appropriate resistance to this requirement, and shift teaching strategies away from simple information delivery, testing, and grading and toward facilitation, guidance, and coaching (Felder & Brent, 2010).
1.2. Statement of the Problem
There are so many programs and schemes put in both private and government secondary schools to enhance interpersonal relationship and interact among teachers, students and parents that create school environment and academic performance (Dewey, 2012). Examples of these programs include teachers training and workshop, seminars and so on. Ideally all these are meant to improve interpersonal relationship and support academic performance and development of a student.
Despite all these programs in place the interpersonal relationship is still insufficient and it affects the development and academic performance of students. According to Ishikida (2010), it has been observed that the issue of teachers interpersonal relationship on students’ performance and development has not really been researched extensively, and the little studies on it has been controversial. Gisleson (2017) argued that, teachers Interpersonal relationships is important to students to help them become successful and freely intermingle with peers and teachers, manage life tasks such as learning, socializing with peers, elders and solving everyday problems.
Researchers in classroom learning environments have indicated the importance of teacher-student relationships in achieving student outcomes. Healthy teacher-student relationships are a prerequisite for engaging students in learning activities (Brekelmans, Sleegers, & Fraser, 2000). Researchers have investigated teacher-student relationships using an interpersonal perspective, that is studying teaching in terms of the relationship between teacher and students (Brok, 2001). Using this perspective, studies show that the way students perceive their teacher interpersonally (teacher interpersonal behaviour) relates to students' academic achievement (e.g., Brok, 2001), attitude towards learning (e.g., Brok, Levy, Brekelmans, & Wubbels, 2013; Gupta & Fisher, 2011; Van Uden, Ritzen, & Pieters, 2014), and students' learning motivation (Maulana, Opdenakker, den Brok, & Bosker, 2011; Maulana, Opdenakker, Stroet, & Bosker, 2013; Opdenakker, Maulana, & den Brok, 2012).
However, in Nigeria, there is no study conducted in this regard, which is a gap this present study seek to fill by examining the influence of teachers interpersonal competence on students development in public secondary schools students in Kosofe local government area of Lagos State.
1.3. Objective of the Study
The fundamental objective of the study is investigates the influence of teachers interpersonal competence on students development in public secondary schools students in Kosofe local government area of Lagos State. The following are the specific objectives of the study:
- To examine the influence of teachers interpersonal skill on students development in oral proficiency
- To assess the influence of teachers interpersonal skill on students development in learning attitude
- To investigate the influence of teachers interpersonal skill on students development in communication skills
- To evaluate the influence of teachers interpersonal skill on student development in academic performance.
1.4. Research Questions
The research questions of the study are to determine;
- What is the influence of teachers’ interpersonal competence on students’ development in oral proficiency?
- Does teachers interpersonal skill has any influence on students’ development in learning attitude?
- What is the influence of teachers’ interpersonal skill on students’ development in communication skills?
- How does teachers’ interpersonal skill enhance the academic performance of students?
1.5. Research Hypotheses
Ho1: Teachers’ interpersonal competence has no significant influence on students’ development in oral proficiency
Ho2: Teachers interpersonal skill has no significant influence on students’ development in learning attitude
Ho3: Teachers’ interpersonal skill has no significant influence on students’ development in communication skills
Ho4: Teachers’ interpersonal skill has no significant influence on the academic performance of students.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to generate knowledge and add value to already existing body of knowledge. The findings of this study will help to inform school administrators, counselors and policy makers to formulate policies that harmonize interpersonal relationship in order to enhance interpersonal relations.
Furthermore, the findings of this study will help to enhance teacher-student, student-student, and parent-child relationship and the influence on students’ development and academic performance.
Besides, the findings of this study will enable government and policy-makers to make bylaws that would fit into school environment and promote interpersonal relationships as a basis for the assessment of the suitability of existing teacher training and as pointers to future teacher training programmes for teachers of students.
Lastly, the findings of this study can be utilized by scholars and other researchers in their further studies as reviewed literature.
1.7. Scope of the Study
The study examined the influence of teachers’ interpersonal competence on students’ development in public secondary schools students in Kosofe local government area of Lagos State. This study is restricted to five (5) selected government secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government which are; Comprehensive Junior High School, Ajo Estate Junior High School, Estaport Secondary School, Anthony Village Senior High School, and Ayedere Ajibola Junior High School. The study is limited to the use of questionnaire as a primary source of data to gather the opinion of the respondents.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
Academic Performance: refers to students’ performance.
Communication: refers to the process of transmitting and receiving information through a common system of symbols whether in form of writing or other signs, expressive movement or spoken words.
Teachers Interpersonal Competence: refer to the ability of a teacher to communicate and interact with students effectively.
Teacher-Student Interaction: refer to a relationship where students engage in learning activities by thinking and providing feedback
Student-Student Interaction: refers to students communicating with one another in class by use of constructive knowledge, cooperate learning and discussions of divergent understanding
Learning Experiences: refer to the behaviour of students acquired during the teaching process.