1.1 Background of the Study
Schools are primarily established to produce individuals equipped with both general and technical competencies to address societal challenges. The Nigerian national educational philosophy emphasizes preparing individuals for practical living within society (Federal Ministry of Education, 2004). Consequently, educational planners in Nigeria must tailor education programs, especially the curriculum, to meet societal needs (Tyokyaa, 2015). The teacher plays a central role in achieving societal aspirations, as highlighted by the national policy on education (NPE, 2004), emphasizing that the quality of a country's education system depends on the quality of its teachers.
In today's Nigerian society, challenges include economic, religious, political, socio-cultural, and security issues such as insurgency, militancy, kidnapping, cultism, and rape (Dzurgba, 2004). Teachers, as major facilitators, must ensure that school programs align with societal realities, using community resources to enrich the instructional process.
Social studies, focusing on man-environment interactions, aims to equip individuals with reflective skills and socially approved values (Mezieobi, 2013). Instructional materials, including field trips and community visits, expose learners to real-world experiences. However, navigating the complexities of modern society requires value clarification in the application of instructional materials (Ayaaba, 2007).
Various teaching techniques, such as role plays, field trips, lectures, and simulations, have been employed in social studies education. Yet, the effectiveness of student-centered techniques and learning experiences outside the classroom is increasingly recognized (Parker, 2001). Connecting teaching with community resources, considered a "mine of untapped resources" (Vande-Guma, 2014), enhances the teaching of human-related disciplines.
Community resources encompass all things outside the school that promote teaching and learning (Mkpa, 1989). Utilizing these resources links theoretical concepts with practical applications, enhancing the learning experience (Tyokyaa, 2015). Integrating community experiences not only strengthens the school-community relationship but also equips students with skills to face societal challenges.
Effective social studies teaching requires modern teaching aids to make classrooms lively and comprehensive. Engaging learners' senses through materials and resources promotes better understanding (Ololobou, 2010). Therefore, modern social studies teachers should carefully select and use community resources to enhance teaching and learning, making lessons more impactful and engaging for students.
This research aims to explore students' perceptions of the use of community resources in social studies teaching. The statement of the problem highlights the historical neglect of community resources in social studies education, leading to poor learner performance. Issues such as teacher attitudes, economic constraints, and administrative rigidities are identified as barriers to the effective use of community resources in teaching social studies. The study seeks to understand students' perspectives on the role of community resources in improving their social studies learning experiences.
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1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the analysis of students’ perception on teacher use of community resources in teaching and learning social studies. Specific objectives of the study are:
- 1. to identify students’ perceptions of the benefits of teachers using community resources in teaching and learning social studies.
- 2. to examine the challenges that students face in accessing and using community resources for social studies learning.
- 3. to develop recommendations for teachers on how to use community resources more effectively to teach social studies.
- 1.4 Research Questions
To guide the study and achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions were formulated:
- 5. what are the benefits that students perceive from teachers using community resources in teaching and learning social studies?
- 6. what challenges do students face in accessing and using community resources for social studies learning?
- 7. what recommendations do students have for teachers on how to use community resources more effectively to teach social studies?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis was developed and tested for the study:
- ho: there is no statistical significant relationship between student perception of teacher use of community resources and teaching of social studies.
- hi: there is a statistical significant relationship between student perception of teacher use of community resources and teaching of social studies.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is important for many reasons. The following are the major stakeholders this paper through its practical and theoretical implications and findings will be of great significance:
Firstly, the paper will benefit major stakeholders and policy makers in the education sector. The various analysis, findings and discussions outlined in this paper will serve as a guide in enabling major positive changes in the industry and sub-sectors.
Secondly, the paper is also beneficial to the organizations used for the research. Since first hand data was gotten and analysed from the organization, they stand a chance to benefit directly from the findings of the study in respect to their various organizations. These findings will fast track growth and enable productivity in the organisations used as a case study.
Finally, the paper will serve as a guide to other researchers willing to research further into the subject matter. Through the conclusions, limitations and gaps identified in the subject matter, other student and independent researchers can have a well laid foundation to conduct further studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to sampled respondents in Eket metropolis. Findings and recommendations from the study reflects the views and opinions of respondents sampled in the area. It may not reflect the entire picture in the population.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The major limitations of the research study are time, financial constraints and delays from respondents. The researcher had difficulties combining lectures with field work. Financial constraints in form of getting adequate funds and sponsors to print questionnaires, hold Focus group discussions and logistics was recorded. Finally, respondents were a bit reluctant in filling questionnaires and submitting them on time. This delayed the project work a bit.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The study is made up of five (5) Chapters. Chapter one of the study gives a general introduction to the subject matter, background to the problem as well as a detailed problem statement of the research. This chapter also sets the objectives of the paper in motion detailing out the significance and scope of the paper.
Chapter Two of the paper entails the review of related literature with regards to corporate governance and integrated reporting. This chapter outlines the conceptual reviews, theoretical reviews and empirical reviews of the study.
Chapter Three centers on the methodologies applied in the study. A more detailed explanation of the research design, population of the study, sample size and technique, data collection method and analysis is discussed in this chapter.
Chapter Four highlights data analysis and interpretation giving the readers a thorough room for the discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of data analyzed in the study.
Chapter Five outlines the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Based on objectives set out, the researcher concludes the paper by answering all research questions set out in the study.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Analysis: In the context of this study, analysis refers to the systematic examination and interpretation of data related to students' perceptions of how teachers utilize community resources in the process of teaching and learning social studies.
Students’ Perception: This term pertains to the way students interpret, understand, and make sense of their teachers' use of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies. It involves the subjective viewpoints and attitudes of students towards these educational practices.
Teacher Use of Community Resources: This phrase encompasses the strategies, methods, and approaches employed by teachers to integrate and incorporate community resources into the teaching and learning of social studies. Community resources may include local experts, facilities, events, and materials available in the students' immediate environment.
Teaching and Learning: In the context of this research, teaching and learning refer to the educational process where teachers impart knowledge, skills, and values to students, and students acquire, comprehend, and apply this knowledge through various instructional methods.
Social Studies: Social studies is a field of study that integrates various disciplines, including history, geography, civics, sociology, and economics, to provide students with a holistic understanding of human society, its structures, and interactions.