1.1 Background of the Study
The initial selection of the right candidate for a job is just the beginning of building an effective management staff. Unfortunately, many companies overlook the importance of providing support to new hires after the recruitment process. The early days and weeks are critical for integrating new employees into the organization.
According to Mullin, orientation is the process of introducing new staff members to the organization's culture, environment, policies, and other staff members. Effective orientation should extend over the first few months of employment, serving as an extension of the recruitment and selection process. It encompasses attention to rules and regulations, familiarization with the organization's operations, and addressing personal training and development needs.
The first impressions that new employees have of an organization and its managers are lasting. The transition into an unfamiliar environment requires personal adjustments, and a well-designed orientation program can significantly impact motivation and attitude toward work performance. The goal is to help new staff members familiarize themselves with their environment, settle into their roles, and establish harmonious working relationships.
An effective orientation program should facilitate the realization of the psychological contract established during recruitment and selection. It aims to create a positive initial impression, ease the new employee's entry into the work group, reduce anxiety, enhance interpersonal acceptance and trust, and minimize feelings of insecurity. Additionally, orientation programs aim to address adjustment problems and contribute to the overall well-being of newly employed workers.
Key objectives of orientation include creating a sense of welcome, security, self-confidence, and belonging. To achieve these goals, the orientation program should be carefully planned and staggered over a reasonable period. Active cooperation from managers, supervisors, and colleagues is essential, and features like orientation information packs, video presentations, and assigned mentors can enhance the effectiveness of the program.
Teaching effectiveness is a crucial aspect of education, involving the use of instructional materials and appropriate language to impart knowledge. Effective teaching goes beyond chance occurrences; it requires continuous evaluation and monitoring. Various methods, including student ratings, peer reviews, videos of practice, interviews with students, and learning outcome measures, can be used to assess teaching effectiveness.
Effective teachers cultivate thinking skills, stimulate interest, motivate students, set high standards, and encourage self-initiated learning. However, research struggles to identify the most important descriptors of effective teaching. The focus on both teaching and learning is crucial for achieving student success. Effective teachers play a vital role in contributing to student achievement, making the knowledge, skills, and disposition of teachers essential in delivering effective instruction.
In the context of Eket Local Government Area secondary schools, there is a gap in providing a well-defined orientation program for new staff after the recruitment exercise. While some teachers perform well without formal orientation, others may not receive the necessary support. The lack of a specified content for orientation programs raises questions about their effectiveness in improving teachers' overall performance. The problem lies in the ignorance of those in leadership positions and the absence of clear guidelines for orientation content in Eket Local Government or the Ministry of Education.
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1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the Impact Of Orientation Process On Teachers Effectiveness In Secondary School In Eket Local Government Area In Akwa Ibom State. Specific objectives of the study are:
- To investigate the impact of the orientation process on teacher effectiveness in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- To identify the specific components of the orientation process that are most beneficial for teacher effectiveness.
- To develop recommendations for schools and policymakers on how to improve the orientation process for new teachers.
- 1.4 Research Questions
To guide the study and achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions were formulated:
- Do teachers who have participated in a comprehensive orientation process perform better in terms of their teaching effectiveness than teachers who have not participated in an orientation process?
- Which specific components of the orientation process (e.g., introduction to school policies and procedures, training on teaching methods and assessment, opportunities to network with other teachers) are most beneficial for teacher effectiveness?
- What are some specific ways in which schools and policymakers can improve the orientation process for new teachers?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis was developed and tested for the study:
- Ho: There is no statistical significant correlation between orientation process and teacher effectiveness.
- hi: there is a statistical significant correlation between orientation process and teacher effectiveness.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is important for many reasons. The following are the major stakeholders this paper through its practical and theoretical implications and findings will be of great significance:
Firstly, the paper will benefit major stakeholders and policy makers in the Education sector. The various analysis, findings and discussions outlined in this paper will serve as a guide in enabling major positive changes in the industry and sub-sectors.
Secondly, the paper is also beneficial to the organizations used for the research. Since first hand data was gotten and analysed from the organization, they stand a chance to benefit directly from the findings of the study in respect to their various organizations. These findings will fast track growth and enable productivity in the organisations used as a case study.
Finally, the paper will serve as a guide to other researchers willing to research further into the subject matter. Through the conclusions, limitations and gaps identified in the subject matter, other student and independent researchers can have a well laid foundation to conduct further studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to sampled respondents in Eket Metropolis. Findings and recommendations from the study reflects the views and opinions of respondents sampled in the area. It may not reflect the entire picture in the population.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The major limitations of the research study are time, financial constraints and delays from respondents. The researcher had difficulties combining lectures with field work. Financial constraints in form of getting adequate funds and sponsors to print questionnaires, hold Focus group discussions and logistics was recorded. Finally, respondents were a bit reluctant in filling questionnaires and submitting them on time. This delayed the project work a bit.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The study is made up of five (5) Chapters. Chapter one of the study gives a general introduction to the subject matter, background to the problem as well as a detailed problem statement of the research. This chapter also sets the objectives of the paper in motion detailing out the significance and scope of the paper.
Chapter Two of the paper entails the review of related literature with regards to corporate governance and integrated reporting. This chapter outlines the conceptual reviews, theoretical reviews and empirical reviews of the study.
Chapter Three centers on the methodologies applied in the study. A more detailed explanation of the research design, population of the study, sample size and technique, data collection method and analysis is discussed in this chapter.
Chapter Four highlights data analysis and interpretation giving the readers a thorough room for the discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of data analyzed in the study.
Chapter Five outlines the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Based on objectives set out, the researcher concludes the paper by answering all research questions set out in the study.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Impact: In the context of this research, impact refers to the measurable or observable effects, changes, or outcomes resulting from the orientation process undergone by teachers. It involves assessing how the orientation process influences and contributes to teachers' effectiveness.
Orientation Process: This term denotes the systematic introduction, training, and familiarization that teachers undergo when they join a secondary school. It includes activities, programs, and information sessions designed to acquaint teachers with the school's policies, procedures, culture, curriculum, and expectations.
Teachers' Effectiveness: Teachers' effectiveness refers to the extent to which teachers are successful in achieving positive outcomes in their teaching roles. This can include factors such as students' academic performance, classroom management, communication skills, and overall impact on student learning and development.
Secondary School: In the educational context, a secondary school typically refers to an institution providing education to students in the age range of 12 to 18, covering grades or forms usually called Junior Secondary School (JSS) and Senior Secondary School (SSS).