1.1 Background to the Study
Instructional supervision in schools serves as a crucial tool for quality control within the educational system. It encompasses activities carried out by instructional supervisors to enhance instruction at all levels of the school system. The instructional supervisor plays a pivotal role in facilitating the implementation of educational programs and providing necessary support to teachers, both new and experienced, in executing instructional programs effectively.
The role of the instructional supervisor extends to overseeing teaching-learning processes, ensuring adherence to accepted educational principles and practices. The effective coordination of these activities falls under the responsibility of the instructional supervisor, who holds a key position in the program of instruction. Failure to provide adequate supervision may lead to a decline in the quality of instruction, affecting teachers' commitment to their job and hindering the achievement of instructional goals.
Instructional supervisors contribute to better task performance by guiding teachers in areas such as lesson plan preparation, use of instructional methods and aids, record-keeping, and classroom management. Supervision is a demanding job that requires careful planning and implementation.
One approach to instructional supervision is record-keeping, which is essential for management effectiveness in schools. Academic records serve as information banks for what has been done, what is to be done, and how things are to be done. The proper maintenance and use of records influence teachers in their approach to teaching tasks.
Delegation of supervisory functions, including peer supervision, is another role of instructional supervisors. By assigning teachers to supervise day-to-day activities, time management, material usage, and coordination of students, instructional supervisors can enhance teachers' regular attendance, instructional delivery, and participation in extracurricular activities.
Classroom observation is a formal or informal technique used by instructional supervisors to provide teachers with constructive feedback aimed at improving classroom management and instructional techniques. This method is crucial for improving teachers' disposition to teaching tasks.
Instructional evaluation is a systematic process that seeks to find the worth, desirability, effectiveness, and adequacy of instruction based on specific criteria and purposes. Evaluation activities are intrinsic to instruction itself, and instructional supervisors play a role in seeking practical ways to improve instruction.
The disposition of teachers significantly influences their professional growth and the quality of education. Teachers' proficiency depends on their disposition, which can make their work easier and more satisfying. Instructional supervisors must position themselves effectively to influence teachers positively in their disposition to teaching tasks, contributing to the overall improvement of education.
Despite the importance of instructional supervision, challenges exist, including teachers' laxity in professional role performance, absenteeism, lateness, unauthorized movement, and other forms of indiscipline. This study aims to empirically examine how instructional supervision relates to teachers' disposition to teaching in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, particularly focusing on areas such as the supervision of academic records, observation of classroom processes, peer supervision, and instructional evaluation.
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1.3 Objectives of the Study
Specific objectives of the study are:
- To investigate the impact of instructional supervision on teachers' disposition to teaching in secondary schools.
- To identify the specific dimensions of instructional supervision that are most beneficial for teachers' disposition to teaching.
- To develop recommendations for school leaders and instructional supervisors on how to implement more effective instructional supervision practices that promote teachers' positive disposition to teaching.
1.4 Research Questions
To guide the study and achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions were formulated:
- What is the relationship between instructional supervision and teachers' disposition to teaching in secondary schools?
- Which specific dimensions of instructional supervision are most beneficial for teachers' disposition to teaching?
- What are some specific strategies that school leaders and instructional supervisors can use to implement more effective instructional supervision practices that promote teachers' positive disposition to teaching?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis was developed and tested for the study:
- Ho: There is no statistical significant relationship between instructional supervsion and teachers’ disposition to teaching in secondary schools.
- hi: there is a statistical significant relationship between instructional supervsion and teachers’ disposition to teaching in secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is important for many reasons. The following are the major stakeholders this paper through its practical and theoretical implications and findings will be of great significance:
Firstly, the paper will benefit major stakeholders and policy makers in the education sector. The various analysis, findings and discussions outlined in this paper will serve as a guide in enabling major positive changes in the industry and sub-sectors.
Secondly, the paper is also beneficial to the organizations used for the research. Since first hand data was gotten and analysed from the organization, they stand a chance to benefit directly from the findings of the study in respect to their various organizations. These findings will fast track growth and enable productivity in the organisations used as a case study.
Finally, the paper will serve as a guide to other researchers willing to research further into the subject matter. Through the conclusions, limitations and gaps identified in the subject matter, other student and independent researchers can have a well laid foundation to conduct further studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to sampled respondents in Uyo Metropolis. Findings and recommendations from the study reflects the views and opinions of respondents sampled in the area. It may not reflect the entire picture in the population.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The major limitations of the research study are time, financial constraints and delays from respondents. The researcher had difficulties combining lectures with field work. Financial constraints in form of getting adequate funds and sponsors to print questionnaires, hold Focus group discussions and logistics was recorded. Finally, respondents were a bit reluctant in filling questionnaires and submitting them on time. This delayed the project work a bit.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The study is made up of five (5) Chapters. Chapter one of the study gives a general introduction to the subject matter, background to the problem as well as a detailed problem statement of the research. This chapter also sets the objectives of the paper in motion detailing out the significance and scope of the paper.
Chapter Two of the paper entails the review of related literature with regards to corporate governance and integrated reporting. This chapter outlines the conceptual reviews, theoretical reviews and empirical reviews of the study.
Chapter Three centers on the methodologies applied in the study. A more detailed explanation of the research design, population of the study, sample size and technique, data collection method and analysis is discussed in this chapter.
Chapter Four highlights data analysis and interpretation giving the readers a thorough room for the discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of data analyzed in the study.
Chapter Five outlines the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Based on objectives set out, the researcher concludes the paper by answering all research questions set out in the study.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Impact: In the context of this research, impact refers to the noticeable effects, influence, or changes resulting from instructional supervision on teachers’ disposition to teaching. It involves assessing how instructional supervision affects and shapes teachers' attitudes, approaches, and commitment to the teaching profession.
Instructional Supervision: This term denotes a structured process wherein educational supervisors or administrators observe, guide, and support teachers in their instructional practices. It involves providing feedback, conducting evaluations, and offering professional development to enhance teaching effectiveness.
Teachers’ Disposition to Teaching: Teachers’ disposition to teaching refers to their overall attitude, inclination, and commitment to the teaching profession. It encompasses aspects such as enthusiasm for teaching, motivation, dedication, and a positive mindset toward their roles and responsibilities as educators.