1.1 Background to the Study

Classroom management encompasses the process of arranging and overseeing the activities within a classroom, often seen as maintaining order through teacher control (Imran et al., 2018). Nevertheless, it extends beyond that definition, involving the creation and upkeep of an environment conducive to achieving educational objectives (Corazon and Guhao, 2020). For elementary and secondary school educators, disciplinary methods and behavioral expectations are central to this approach. As students mature, instructors may adjust their management style to foster self-directed learning (Markowitz, 2018). While each teacher may employ a unique management style tailored to the needs of their class, certain common elements persist, including classroom setup, rules, discipline, and communication.

Classroom management strategies revolve around a teacher's capacity to establish, implement, and maintain a learning environment using available resources, both human and material, within the classroom. Chukwu (2018) defines classroom management strategy as a set of concepts, procedures, and tools designed to assist educators and classroom leaders in their responsibilities. It represents a deliberate effort to make fundamental decisions and take actions that shape and guide the functioning of an educational institution. These strategies consist of concepts, procedures, and tools intended to help educators, administrators, and others think and act strategically on behalf of their institutions and their stakeholders. Classroom management strategies bridge the gap between an institution's current status and its desired future state, considering the analysis of its surroundings. It entails assessing internal strengths and weaknesses, external opportunities and threats, and crafting implementation strategies and plans, including action steps, responsible individuals, timelines, and control mechanisms, along with setting evaluation criteria. Oboegbulem and Onwurah (2011) explain that classroom management strategies are the techniques used by teachers to ensure smooth classroom operations despite disruptive student behavior. Ademola and Waheed (2006) propose that these strategies involve the systematic use of human and material resources, appropriate leadership styles, and effective teaching methods to efficiently and effectively achieve specified classroom objectives. Similarly, Ajayi (2004) suggests that classroom management strategies enable teachers to create a conducive learning environment that facilitates effective teaching and learning while preventing disruptive behavior that hinders the educational process.

The competence of teachers in organizing classrooms and managing student behavior is crucial for achieving positive educational outcomes. Although effective classroom management alone does not guarantee successful teaching, it does create the environmental conditions conducive to effective teaching methods. Conversely, highly effective teaching can reduce, though not eliminate, classroom behavior issues (Egeberg et al., 2020). A well-designed classroom should strike a balance between teaching methods and learning styles. Combining these two aspects fosters a learning environment that benefits both students and teachers, enhancing the overall learning experience. The physical layout and design of the classroom play a vital role in creating a conducive learning environment that can prevent attitudinal issues and promote improved learning (National Academy of Science, 2020). The organization of the learning environment holds significance for both teachers and students, as the physical condition and arrangement of the classroom can impact teaching methods and performance. A well-structured classroom management plan, encompassing design, can positively influence students' attitudes toward learning.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Classroom management plays a significant role in shaping students' academic achievements and overall performance. To facilitate effective teaching and learning, teachers must adeptly and efficiently handle disruptive student behaviors, such as fighting, noise-making, classroom organization, and addressing the needs of students with visual impairments, reading difficulties, writing challenges, spelling issues, slow learning, low self-esteem, and more. The importance of employing classroom management strategies for teaching and learning cannot be overstated. A conducive and appealing classroom environment is essential for effective instruction. To achieve this, it is crucial to ensure the provision of instructional materials and maintain high standards of classroom discipline, among other responsibilities for the teacher.

However, despite the critical role of classroom management strategies in enhancing students' learning experiences and satisfaction, there has been a recent observation of setbacks in the implementation of these strategies within Nigerian educational institutions, particularly in the South-East region. These setbacks have hindered the full realization of educational goals, as evidenced by students' inability to apply what they have learned outside the classroom. These challenges have led to various issues, including students' underperformance in both internal and external examinations, increased incidents of aggressive and antisocial behavior, disruptions in the classroom, low self-esteem among students, academic misconduct, a rise in school dropouts, and poorly organized and controlled classrooms. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the implementation of classroom management strategies in public secondary schools in the South-East region of Nigeria to bridge the knowledge gap and address these issues effectively.

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1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of classroom management on undergraduate students’ academic performance. Specific objectives of the study are:

  1. 1.  To identify the challenges of classroom management in Nigerian Universities using Niger Delta University as a case study.
  2. 2.  To investigate the relationship between classroom management and undergraduate students' academic performance in Niger Delta University.
  3. 3.  To develop recommendations for educators and institutions to enhance classroom management practices and improve undergraduate student outcomes.

1.4 Research Questions

To guide the study and achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. What are the challenges of Classroom management in Nigerian Universities?
  2. What is the relationship between classroom management and undergraduate performance?
  3. What policy changes can be implemented to enhance classroom management and improve undergraduate academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following research hypothesis was developed and tested for the study:

  1. Ho: There is no statistical significant relationship between classroom management and undergraduate students’ academic.
  2. Hi: There is a statistical significant relationship between classroom management and undergraduate students’ academic.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is important for many reasons. The following are the major stakeholders this paper through its practical and theoretical implications and findings will be of great significance:

Firstly, the paper will benefit major stakeholders and policy makers in the education sector. The various analysis, findings and discussions outlined in this paper will serve as a guide in enabling major positive changes in the industry and sub-sectors.

Secondly, the paper is also beneficial to the organizations used for the research. Since first hand data was gotten and analysed from the organization, they stand a chance to benefit directly from the findings of the study in respect to their various organizations. These findings will fast track growth and enable productivity in the organisations used as a case study.

Finally, the paper will serve as a guide to other researchers willing to research further into the subject matter. Through the conclusions, limitations and gaps identified in the subject matter, other student and independent researchers can have a well laid foundation to conduct further studies.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is delimited to sampled to undergraduate students of the Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State. Findings and recommendations from the study reflects the views and opinions of respondents sampled in the area. It may not reflect the entire picture in the population.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The major limitations of the research study are time, financial constraints and delays from respondents. The researcher had difficulties combining lectures with field work. Financial constraints in form of getting adequate funds and sponsors to print questionnaires, hold Focus group discussions and logistics was recorded. Finally, respondents were a bit reluctant in filling questionnaires and submitting them on time. This delayed the project work a bit.

1.9 Organization of the Study

The study is made up of five (5) Chapters. Chapter one of the study gives a general introduction to the subject matter, background to the problem as well as a detailed problem statement of the research. This chapter also sets the objectives of the paper in motion detailing out the significance and scope of the paper.

Chapter Two of the paper entails the review of related literature with regards to corporate governance and integrated reporting. This chapter outlines the conceptual reviews, theoretical reviews and empirical reviews of the study.

Chapter Three centers on the methodologies applied in the study. A more detailed explanation of the research design, population of the study, sample size and technique, data collection method and analysis is discussed in this chapter.

Chapter Four highlights data analysis and interpretation giving the readers a thorough room for the discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of data analyzed in the study.

Chapter Five outlines the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Based on objectives set out, the researcher concludes the paper by answering all research questions set out in the study.

1.10 Definition of Terms


  1. Classroom Management: Classroom management refers to the strategies, techniques, and practices used by educators to create a conducive learning environment, maintain discipline, and promote effective teaching and learning in the classroom.
  2. Academic Performance: Academic performance encompasses a student's achievements in their studies, including grades, test scores, assignments, and overall success in their academic pursuits.
  3. Undergraduate Students: Undergraduate students are individuals enrolled in a bachelor's degree program at a college or university. They are typically in the early stages of their higher education.
  4. Learning Environment: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which learning takes place. Effective classroom management can help create a positive and supportive learning environment.
  5. Classroom Discipline: Classroom discipline involves maintaining order and control within the classroom, ensuring that students follow rules and guidelines, and addressing disruptive behavior when necessary.
  6. Classroom Behavior: This refers to the actions, conduct, and attitudes of students in the classroom, which can influence the learning atmosphere and academic performance.
  7. Teacher-Student Relationship: The quality of interaction and rapport between teachers and students, which can impact students' engagement, motivation, and academic performance.
  8. Instructional Strategies: Teaching methods and techniques employed by educators to convey subject matter effectively and engage students in the learning process.
  9. Student Engagement: Student engagement is the degree of involvement, interest, and participation students demonstrate in their learning. Effective classroom management can enhance student engagement.
  10. Academic Support: The guidance, resources, and assistance provided by educators and institutions to help students succeed academically. Classroom management can influence the provision of academic support.
  11. Educational Psychology: The study of how psychological principles and theories can be applied to educational settings, including understanding student behavior and learning.
  12. Classroom Assessment: The process of evaluating and measuring students' knowledge and skills through various assessment methods, such as exams, quizzes, and assignments.