The organization faces a significant challenge due to the rapid rate of change, necessitating a more adaptable and flexible leadership approach (Basset al, 2003). According to Bass (2003), leaders who adapt effectively in swiftly evolving environments help both leaders and followers understand the challenges they face and respond appropriately. Beninis (2001) argues that adaptive leaders collaborate with their followers to devise innovative solutions to complex issues while nurturing their abilities to handle a broader spectrum of leadership responsibilities.

The research conducted by Avolio (1999) and Bass (1998) to test the transformation leadership theory generally supports the hypothesis that there is a relationship between transactional leadership and performance. Thus, it seems widely accepted that leadership style can impact the performance of the Kano State public service.

Nonetheless, top management's primary concern is the overall performance of the organization they lead. It is evident that organizational performance can be influenced by various factors, such as employees' job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, motivation to serve the public, and their willingness to work diligently and devotedly (Kim, 2005). Work motivation and employees' perception of how well the organization is managed also play a role in influencing organizational performance in the Kano State public service (Peters and Waterman, 1982). Leadership styles may not directly affect performance but can serve as a catalyst for other factors that ultimately impact the organization's performance.

The measurement of organizational performance, particularly in government organizations, is a specific concern. Various methods are available for measuring organizational performance, some of which rely on subjective and specific measures. According to Holloway (2000), there has been a shift away from traditional financial performance measures towards "Portfolio" approaches like the balanced scorecard (Kaplan and Norton, 1992, 1996) and the European model for total quality management. However, the concern about organizational performance persists, as reflected in the lack of consensus in the literature.

Rogers and Wright (1998) assert that organizational performance is a widely studied but loosely defined construct, and it remains dependent on the individual's support. An individual will support an organization they believe in, and if their personal objectives and goals align with it, their interest and commitment will remain strong. The study suggests that

leadership style within an organization is a significant factor in either enhancing or diminishing an individual's interest and commitment to the organization (Glands, 2002).




The significant failure of public services at the beginning of the 21st century has been attributed to ineffective leadership (Finchan and Rhodes, 2005). The more common adverse outcomes of inadequate leadership include employee stress, disenchantment, reduced creativity, cynicism, high employee turnover, and diminished productivity. Ineffectual leadership erodes the vital human spirit necessary for ensuring work effectiveness (Finchan and Rhodes, 2005).

Contemporary organizations are increasingly adopting more democratic structures, allowing employees to have an influence on decision-making due to a growing emphasis on quality and the need for a high level of employee commitment to their work (Scomech, 2010). However, the impact of leadership behavior on the attitudes of male and female subordinates is not clearly defined. Scholars suggest that gender may affect subordinates' attitudes toward a manager's leadership style and their resulting commitment to an organization (Neal et al, 2005). This study aims to further investigate the relationship between leadership style and organizational performance in the Kano State public services.

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The general objective of the study is to examined leadership styles and organization performance in Kano State public services. The specific objectives include;

1.     To examine leadership and organization

2.     To evaluate leadership style and performance in public sectors of Kano State

3.     To analyze participative and organizational commitment

4.     To assess transformational leadership and organizational performance

5.     To examined gender organizational performance in public service.

6.     To assess qualities of good leader in public service of Kano State

7.     To recommend effective way/styles the leader should adopt for organization performance


The exploit in this study progress from the proportion that

Ho:  There is no relationship between leadership and performance

Hi: there is relationship between leadership style and performance.


The study has both practical and theoretical significance; the study on theoretical aspect will benefit the student of political science and public administratio9n and those who are interested in studies concerning leadership styles and organizational performance in Kano State public services. This study will not only enrich their knowledge, but also add to the pool of literature from which future researcher can draw. It will therefore help to extend the frontier of knowledge of the subject matter moreover, the study will be addition to the existing work done in this era by others researchers since the research endeavour is an on –going process, there is no doubt that this work will arouse the interest of other researches to carry out further investigation in this area.


The centers on leadership styles and organization performance in Kano state public services. The respondents for the study will be limited to civil servants in Kano state.


Finance:  money is very importance in everything in life. the high cost of research materials, printing and transport fair compare with the little money of the hindered this research work.

Information: the basic and detained information as well as the research material needed for effective research were not available.

 Sometime the international system may not be responding when searching for information.

Time: the short span of time appropriated for the researcher to be carried to be out was a major challenge. The limited time led to the researchers’ inability to assess fully from all authorities concerning the leadership style and organizational performance in Kano State public service


The study examined leadership style and organizational performance in Kano State public services. The study is divided in to four chapters, one evaluate the background of the study which include introduction, statement of the problem, objective of study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, limitation of the study organisational of the study and definition of terms. Chapter two analyzes literature review and theoretical frame work chapter three assesses research methodology which incorporates: research design, area/population of the study, technique and data analysis. Finally, chapter four contains summary, recommendation and conclusion.

1.8 Definition of the terms


Ubeku, (1975) defines leadership as the act of motivating or causing people to perform certain task intended to achieve specified objectives. Leadership is the acts of making things happen. Leadership has difficult meaning to various authors, some have interpreted leader in simple term such as the influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward achievement of grouped goals (koon, et,al,(1978).

Organisational performance

Organisational performance:

Organisational performance comprises the actual output or result of an organisation as measured against its intended outputs (or goals or objectives) according to Richard et al (2001), organisational performance encompasses three specific areas of firm outcome.

  1. Financial performance (profit, return on assets, return on investment)
  2. Product market performance (sales, market share).
  3. Shareholder return (total shareholder return, economic value added etc.


According to Wikipedia public services is one that is operated by the government. This contrast with private sectors, which are controlled by private entities. One example of public service is the government schools. Public service often provides services for citizen regardless of the person’s inability to pay. In some cases, public and private organization work together for the common purpose. This happens when the government gives a contract to a private business to perform work on a specific project.