1.1 Background of the Study
The influence of organizational culture on employee performance is a topic that has been extensively explored in the literature, with varying perspectives and findings. Alvesson (2002) has summarized four main views on the relationship between organizational culture and performance:
- The Strong-Culture Thesis: This perspective suggests that a strong organizational culture leads to high performance.
- The Reverse Relationship: In contrast, some argue that performance leads to the creation of a "strong" culture.
- The Contingency Approach: This view suggests that specific cultures are appropriate and necessary for particular organizations or situations.
- The Adaptive Culture: This perspective highlights the importance of an adaptive culture that can quickly respond to environmental changes, ultimately leading to better performance.
Denison (2004) found that organizations with participative cultures tend to perform better than those with less participative cultures. This is supported by the idea that employee buy-in to the organizational culture is crucial for performance, as noted by Burt, Gabbay, Holt, and Moran (2004). Other scholars have built on this foundation by conducting empirical research on organizational culture and its impact on employee performance, including Gordon and Di Tomaso (2002), Kotter and Heskett (2002), Marcouldes Soresnsen (2002), and Heck (2003).
Some studies have found a degree of correlation between organizational culture and employee performance, as shown by Burt, Gabbay, Holt, and Moran (2004) and Ogbonna and Harris (2000). Rashed and S. Rashed (2003) also found a clear link between culture and employee performance in their examination of organizational culture literature.
However, Lewis (2004) concluded that behavior is the primary factor directly affecting an organization's performance. She suggested that while behavior may be one manifestation of culture, it is not the sole determinant of behavior.
Overall, the relationship between organizational culture and performance has gained increasing interest and acceptance over the years, even though it remains challenging to definitively prove. This research aims to contribute to this ongoing discussion by examining the impact of organizational culture on employee performance, focusing on selected schools in Uyo Local Government Area.Top of Form
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1.2 Statement of the Problem
Organizational culture exerts a significant influence on the performance and productivity of organizations. Sanusi (2010) argued that poor corporate governance and corporate culture played a substantial role in the challenges faced by Nigerian organizations during the post-consolidation era.
Several studies, including those by Dillmar et al. (2009), Kennedy et al. (2000), and Fabowali et al. (2008), have examined the relationship between school effectiveness and process characteristics, which pertain to the organizational features and internal functioning of schools. Edelstein (2012) provided a notable summary of this research, identifying five key factors associated with effective schools: strong administrative leadership, high expectations for children's achievement, an orderly and conducive learning environment, a focus on basic skill acquisition, and regular monitoring of student progress.
Since the 1970s, the number of studies on school culture has grown substantially. However, our understanding of organizational cultural types in schools remains somewhat limited, largely because most empirical research in school culture has been qualitative and interpretive in nature (Kelley & Bredeson, 2002; Kottkamp, 2004; Oriitiz, 2006; Owens, Steenhoff, and Rosenbaum, 2009).
Pang (2009), in his study on the culture of schools in Hong Kong, identified a cultural profile for each school based on composite scores of variables such as bureaucratic linkage, tight coupling, and loose coupling. Thus, this research aims to explore the impact of organizational culture on employee performance by investigating how values like teacher competence and teamwork affect school performance. It also examines the influence of rituals, as manifested in school behavioral patterns and unwritten rules, and artifacts, represented by school symbols that motivate and foster a sense of togetherness. Additionally, it assesses how basic assumptions, reflected in student-teacher interactions, the nature of realities, and stories, shape dimensions of employee performance in schools.
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1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of organizational culture on employee performance in selected schools in Uyo Local Government Area. The specific objectives includes:
To assess the effect of values on employee performance.
To find out the effect of norms on employee performance.
To describe the effects of basic assumptions on employee performance.
To examine the perceived relationship between organizational culture and employee performance.
To identify other variables that determine performance of an employee in an organization.
To make recommendation for further research on the effect of organizational culture on employee performance.
1.3 Research Questions
This research is designed to address the following research questions:
What are the effects of organizational norms, values and basic assumptions on employee’s performance?
What is the relationship between organizational culture and employee’s performance?
What are the other variables that determine employee’s performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and employee’s performance.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between elements of organizational culture and employee’s performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
One of the significant aims of this study is to add value to the body of existing knowledge on organization theory and management, it is hoped that the study would be of benefit to the school managers in assessing the effectives of the organization culture on employee performance in schools: the study’s finding can be used to enrich the thinking of top management on how to develop good image of the company through enriching the company’s culture. The study will also be a source of information for reference materials for schools. Furthermore the study will also be a source of information for scholars studying the effect of organizational culture on employee’s performance in school in Uyo Local Government in Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study explored the effect of organizational culture on employee’s performance in selected schools in Uyo Local Government in Akwa Ibom State. The study targeted 25 head teachers and 75 teachers in 5 schools; therefore total target population was 100 respondent.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The researcher encountered some challenges on the course of collecting data for this study, the principals and teachers of some schools sampled were initially reluctant to co-operate with the researcher. They were apprehensive of the objectives of the study. In that regard, the researcher had to show his school identity card to allay their fears the researcher also convinced them that their names and that of their schools would not be cited in the study. Another problem the researcher encountered was the interruption of the interview session with the semester examination in the University. The researcher overcame this problem by continuing the study after the interruption.
1.9 Definition of Concept
Organizational culture: This refer to the multifaceted set of beliefs assumption and value that helps in presenting different levels of culture by conducting business at an effective manner (Pattigrew 1979) Schein, 1990 refers to organizational culture has been affected by attitudes, norms and beliefs that lead to the creation of the organization goals and means of achieving such goals.
School culture: Are the norms and shared experiences that evolve over school’s history, it might be described as the character of a school that gives a school qualities beyond its structures, resources and practices (Hargreaves 1992). School culture includes the following:
Symbols: Such as colours, logos, fashion environment and people.
Stories: Information and myths that give the school an interesting character.
Management Strategies: These are ways the management use to archive organizational goals.
Inclusion: Involving all employee in the operation of the organization.
Bureaucracy: A system of government by officials responsible only to their departmental chief.
Organizational objectives: These are the aims and goals of organization.
Environment: A surrounding external conditions influencing, development or growth of the organization.
Legacy: The history of a school such as a list of graduate who went on to do great things.
Language: Element of language that are unique to a school such as slogans, terms and slangs.
Traditions: Such as unique ways of celebrating accomplishments.
Loyalty: Students and faculty who feel a sense of allegiance and duty to a school.
Employee’s Performance: Armstrong (2006) defines employee performance as the ability of any employee to successfully and efficiently perform the duties and task assigned to him or her within the organization. In addition Armstrong argues that employee performance is not just a matter of only what a group of employee (team) or an individual employee achieves in regards to the set goals and target but it also has to do with how the employees is willing and motivated to uphold and promote the values of the organization.