1.1       Background to the Study

Family is a setting where children acquire crucial skills such as decision making, responsibility, regard for others, representation of love and to start their first education (Dil & Bulantekin, 2011). Parents exercise different techniques (based on different attitudes and habits) to nurture their children. Parents' attitudes and behaviors can be altered according to their social and psychological condition, personal qualities, the characteristics of their children, and the behavior showed by the children. All above variables trigger parents to show different types of behavior that create their own parenting style. Parenting styles are specified as behavior patterns that are exercised by elementary caregivers when interacting with their children (Besharat, Azizi, & Poursharifi, 2015).

            Moreover, parenting styles play an essential role towards the children growth in all perspectives, such as social, psychological and educational. According to Kordi & Baharudin (2018) and Akbar, Asrar, Younes, Chisthi (2015) parenting style is a psychological plan that defines the techniques which are typically exercised by parents to raise their children that consists of the attitudes and behaviors of parents. Parenting styles influence child's self-development, self-confidence and academic achievement (Brown & Iyengar, 2008). Parents make use of various parenting styles to make their children stand out and be successful in life. Many studies advocate that academic achievement of a child can be improved or declined depending upon the parental style (Spera, 2005). It is observed that parenting style has been connected to the overall development i.e., cognitive, psychological, social and academic of the children, teens and adolescents (Steinberg, et al, 1994). In literature, it is worth discussing that Parental styles are conceptualized as the parental attitudes towards the child and known for creating a psychological atmosphere where the parental behavior is articulated (Darling & Steinberg, 1995).

            Generally, three kinds of parenting styles are exercised by parents specifically authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. According to schneider, Small and Tsay (1997) skillful parents constantly express friendly bond with their children. It is noted that Berk as mentioned in Alarcon (1997) has specified following groups of parenting styles Authoritative - responsive and demanding style, Authoritarian - demanding with low degree of responsiveness and Permissive - opposite of authoritarian style. These three dimensions (3D's) impact parents' success in enlightening their children, although they have not been plainly traced however only discussed in the study: unresponsiveness (versus responsiveness), undemanding (versus demanding) and granting autonomy to children (Assefa & Sintayehu, 2019). All three dimensions were identified in connection with the child's end results. Nevertheless, in a subsequent study by Baumrind (1996) and Ambachew, Amare and Geleta (2018), treatment autonomy was offered as an element that might result from the other two dimensions.

Iheanacho (2000) disclosed that love is a parenting element which is requisite for good psychological health and accomplishment of better academic achievement. When parenting is autocratic, children become intimidated and inactive. As a result, they perform poorly academically. Likewise, Eze (2006) identified that when parent - child relationship is strained conflicts frequently occur between the two and the children`s academic achievement drop. It is typical Knowledge that the harsh socio - economic imperatives this present time have adversely affected the parenting duties of many parents. The poor economic status has forced couples into participating in all types of paid jobs or self - employed businesses which take them far from their homes for several hours, therefore abandoning their children to the impulses and caprices of nannies and house helps.

The unmonitored adolescents pre-occupy themselves with watching of videos, playing video games and surfing the internet, all at the expense of their studies. This obvious uncomplimentary parenting demeanour cannot be neglected since it has not just adversely affected parenting duties however has likewise been connected to the generally observed poor academic achievement of students in examinations. (Oloyede & Demide 2013; Kalgo, (2002). According to Tay & Tam (2011) poor academic achievement should certainly be highly rejected since it brings unimaginable hardships and frustration on an individual and backwardness to the growth of a nation. Hence, the reason for this study on the influence of parenting style on academic achievement of students by using Essien Udim Local Government Area as a case study.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

            According to Bigner (2006), some parents might lack of guidance in parenting ability and idea that parent-child relationship is unnecessary undergoes scientific study. Thus, absence of parenting skill might result in scenario where lots of parents see their children transforming to noncompliant, oppositional and resistant to parental standard from adolescent stage onwards. Additionally, conflicts might occur as parents have the tendency to put pressure on their children to conform to their own standard (Santrock, 2008). This scenario has attracted the attention of educationists, researchers, curriculum planners, educational policymakers, public analysists, and government in all levels. A lot of the issues resulting in students' poor academic achievement in school originate from their home settings, the need to explore the poor academic achievement of students has to be examined from the parent's aspects, since home is one of the greatest agents of education, and obviously, the foundation of any child. This is due to the fact that home is the first agent of education as training begins from home before moving to school. Therefore, the relationship between parenting styles and academic achievement of students Essien Udim Local Government Area becomes imperative.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

            The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of parenting style on academic achievement of students by using Essien Udim Local Government Area as a case study. The specific objectives include:

i)                   To investigate the effect of authoritarian parenting styles and academic achievement of students

ii)                 To explore the relationships between academic achievements of students authoritative parenting styles of their parents.

iii)               To determine the influence of permissive parenting style and academic achievements of students

1.4       Research Questions

            This study would seek to find answers to the following questions:

i)                   What is the effect of authoritarian parenting styles and academic achievement of students?

ii)                 What is the relationships between academic achievements of students with authoritative parenting styles of their parents?

iii)               What is the influence of permissive parenting style and academic achievements of students?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

            The following hypotheses guided the study:

i)                   There is a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting styles and academic achievement of students

ii)                 There is no significant correlation between academic achievements of students and authoritative parenting styles of their parents.

iii)               There is a significant influence of permissive parenting style and academic achievements of students

1.6       Significance of the Study

            The significance of this study was in finding out how the various parenting styles affect the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. This issue is one of personal interest to the researcher, given the falling standards in the educational system of the country and the need to find solutions to ameliorate the problems so as to ensure promotion of high standard of quality education. The findings of this study would help parents understand the important role they must play in the education of their children in order to ensure success. It will also help them to know which parenting style is more appropriate and how their involvement by means of their responsiveness and demandingness could go to ensure success for their children.

            Many studies, as have been revealed, back the vital role parents play in the educational achievement of their children and that their participation both at school and home leads to positive development in their children. However, few studies of this nature do exist in Ghana and as such this study will go a long way to help contribute to, and fill gaps in the literature on parenting styles and academic performance in general.

            Lastly, findings from this study will have theoretical, parenting and educational implications as they would help contribute to policy making in terms of creating awareness among parents about the impact of their parenting styles on their children’s performances and the need to garner the right support from parents towards their children’s education in order to improve the educational fortunes of students and the improve the standard of education in the country.

1.7       Scope of the Study

            This study was delimited to Senior Secondary School of Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The academic achievement of the Senior Secondary School students was limited to their Science subjects and their scores in their promotion examination.

1.8       Limitations of the Study

            One limitation that was experienced through this study was time and hence the researcher asked for assistance from research assistants to ensure that the expected scope was covered within the given time. The researcher also experienced a challenge in accessing parents of all the students sampled, and therefore the study used the parents of students who were in day secondary schools since they were able to refer the researcher to their parents as compared to students who are in boarding schools since they were in school session during the research time and secondly the parents were dispersed in different geographical areas.