1.1 Background of the Study
With the increased use of ICT as a way of instruction, ‘the reduced significance of physical distance implies that the best (and the most awful educational and corporate institutions) of any nation can decide to open a branch anywhere around the world or to reach out across borders using the internet or satellite communication web links, efficiently competing with any national college on its own territory'. The Internet has given access to a wealth of information previously inaccessible to people. The danger for all students is that information is presented as truth without confirmation or recommendations. It is for that reason essential that students are taught ways to search effectively and to evaluate the reliability of what they find both important skills for clinically literate citizens. The Internet can enable students to research background information connected to practical work being carried out, when asked to do so by a teacher. It enables students to pick the research areas they wish to study, the deepness of their research and, given Internet access at home, the time frame for carrying it out.
In the opinion of Gbamanja (1999), traditionally, biology teaching was boring, unimagined and lacking in vigor. Vigor teacher dispense imparted knowledge, while the learners learnt mostly by utilizing memorization. Students were passive learners. This situation will definitely not motivate and encourage interest in biology learning that is a major key to using ICT devices in classroom teaching.
For proper understanding of the topics in Biology, internet is used to conduct background research before the work is carried out. Data logging is just one of the primary applications of ICT used to support practical work. Data logging describes the process of gathering information using a computer system, however is likewise linked to how the information are showed and evaluated and is one of the primary applications of ICT used to support practical work. It was recommended that data logging has the potential to improve students' thinking about and understanding of science, as it eliminates the need for low-level data collection skills and enables students more time to focus on the evaluation of the data and application of theory. It eliminates the need to control intricate devices, as long as there is support available to assist set up the data loggers and computer systems. It likewise creates a clear outcome almost instantly, removing the need to draw graphs by hand or spend time inputting the information manually. It can likewise help those with visual problems, that might have a hard time to gather information from conventional tools such as thermometers, enabling them to create clear electronic output formatted to their own choice. Nevertheless, information logging is not a miracle solution which allows students with disabilities to perform every experiment. There are, for instance, still accessibility problems for lots of students when it comes to carrying out fieldwork. The uses of ICT in schools are so varied that it is practically difficult to list all possible application. Taylor (2009) recognizes three functions of computer systems in classrooms; as a tutor, device, and tutee. Introduction of ICT in Biology lesson can increase not just the level of understanding however also enhance students' learning attitudes towards biology.
Tella, Toyobo, Adika and Adeyinka (2011) have analyzed Nigeria Secondary School teachers using ICT and implications for further advancement of ICT used in schools using a census of seventy school teachers. Their finding revealed that many teachers viewed ICT as really helpful and as making teaching and learning easier. Internet use and world population statistics for march 31, 2011 revealed that 5.7% of the population in Africa made use of the internet which is the second largest worldwide while Asia statistics revealed the highest with 44% of internet use (Internet World Stats, 2011). In the later part of 2008, an estimate 100% of US public schools had one or more instructional computers with internet access and the ration of students to instructional computers with internet access was Ninety-seven percent of institutions had several instructional computer systems located in classrooms (leaving out laptop computers on cart) and 58% of schools had laptop on cart (US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2010). While in Nigeria, few can pride themselves on the accessibility and use of ICT in teaching learning process.
In spite of these worthy goals and the considerable influence of biology on humans, senior secondary school students' performance in the subject is worrisome as rightly disclosed by researchers (Abimbola 2013; Singer, 2015). The appalling performance of students in biology is a clear indicator of the low quality of biology education in the country. According Jerrard (2016), the Education for All Global Monitoring Report (2013/ 2014) specified that an education system is just comparable to its teachers'. It is therefore essential to improve the quality of biology teachers to improve qualitative biology education. Incorporating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into biology teacher education might considerably enhance the biology teachers' efficiency and effectiveness and by extension students' performance in biology. It is therefore necessary to improve the in-service training environment of teachers in Biology in the utilization of ICT facilities during instructional delivery in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In spite of the numerous benefits of using ICTs that have been recorded in past literature and various government initiatives to invest in resources and training to incorporate the effective use of ICTs in its academic procedure, The rate at which ICT are made use of in the classrooms is still far below expectation. Additionally, the need for the availability and use of ICTs in teaching learning process has been lacking and the teachers who are qualified to teach the knowledge of ICT to students cannot meet the need. For that reason, there is need to stimulate actions to bring innovation into the classroom to enhance biology teaching, learning and efficiency. As such the study sought to investigate the improvement in the in-service training environment of teachers in Biology in the utilization of ICT facilities during instructional delivery in secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess the improvement in the in-service training environment of teachers in Biology in the utilization of ICT facilities during instructional delivery in secondary schools. However, the specific objectives include:
i) To examine the types of in-service trainings available for Biology teachers to enable their effective teaching.
ii) To assess if secondary schools in Nigeria have adequate ICT facilities available for effective teaching and learning of Biology.
iii) To determine the extent to which teachers, students and school leaders utilize ICT facilities for teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools.
iv) To investigate the factors affecting the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
This study was guided by the following four basic questions:
i) What are the types of in-service trainings available for Biology teachers to enable their effective teaching?
ii) Do secondary schools in Nigeria have adequate ICT facilities available for effective teaching and learning of Biology?
iii) To what extent do teachers, students and school leaders utilize ICT facilities for teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools?
iv) What are the factors affecting the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
This study was guided by the following hypotheses:
i) There is a significant correlation between the types of in-service trainings available for Biology teachers and effective teaching.
ii) There is no significant relationship between adequate ICT facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria and effective teaching and learning of Biology
iii) There is a significant correlation between teachers, students and school leaders’ use of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Organizational development is essential to embrace the values and policies of a changing society. Every school needs to critically examine its practices, procedures, problems, prospects, and structures as an ongoing exercise. Currently, there are both internally and externally, increasing pressure being placed on schools in Nigeria to enact reform specially to bring the quality of education. Calls for school reform and restructuring over the past few years, the Nigerian government secondary schools have focused their attention on the importance of ICT as well as training teachers to master different ways of using these ICT facilities in order to enhance the quality of education in the country. Therefore, the findings of this study will be beneficial in the following ways:
It will serve a basis for secondary school administrators to assess their strengths and weaknesses to provide appropriate ICT facilities necessary to improve teaching and learning process in their schools.
It will also provide information for teachers, school administrators, supervisors, government and other stakeholders regarding the factors that hinder the provision and utilization of ICT facilities and the ways to improve them.
In addition, it will provide valuable information for those who engaged in education sector development program, specially to improve the quality of education
The findings may create the awareness to support the decision-making process of any school administration on use of ICT in teaching and learning and provides a justification for the need for provision of ICT to schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is on improving in the in-service training environment of teachers in Biology in the utilization of ICT facilities during instructional delivery in secondary schools. To make the study more manageable and feasible, it was delimited to assessing the in-service training of teachers, availability and utilization of such ICT facilities such as, desktop and laptop computers, internet access, projectors, printers, photocopy, duplication, fax, and scanning machines, educational softwares, television, computer accessories for maintenance, computer laboratory for both teachers and students, and other related school based information and communication technologies in four (4) government secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. These are Ifako International Secondary School, Sanngo Senior Secondary School, Agege, Vetland Grammar School and Imola Comprehensive College.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
It is obvious that research work can be not totally free from limitation. To this end, some limitations were also observed when conducting this study. One apparent limitation was lack of recent and relevant literature on the topic, especially on Nigerian context. Most of the recent literature that was accessible from western countries, which was not always relevant to the local situation in Nigeria. As the findings of this study were based on Likert-type questions, it did not allow participants to construct their own responses or allow the researcher to probe for additional insight. The findings of the study were also limited by the accuracy and perception of the participants; and it is assumed most teachers are responded honestly and interpreted the instrument as intended.
Another limitation was most of secondary school principals, vice principals, teachers were busy and had no enough time to respond to questionnaires. Some of them who have enough time were also reluctant to fill in and return the questionnaire as per the required time. In spite of these short comings, however, it was attempted to make the study as complete as possible.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms are used in the study and how it is applicable to the research:
ICT: Refers to all forms of technologies such as internet, computers, websites, telephones mobiles, wireless devices, networks, hardware, software and telecommunication equipment.
ICT Facilities: technological devices used to process, analyzing, synthesizing, sharing different kinds of information and information processing activities and tools that are necessary to improve teaching and learning process.
Types of ICT materials: Those includes any communication device or application, encompassing: computers, LCD projectors, printers, photocopy machines, duplication, fax, and scanning machines, radio, television, cellular phones, hardware and software, satellite systems, as well as video conferencing internet access and other facilities that ensures student’s learning.
Amount of ICT materials: Are the quantity or number of ICT materials and that are found in the schools to enhance teaching and learning process.
Utilization of ICT materials: Refers to using different types of ICT facilities in classroom and in different educational settings for the purpose of teaching and learning process.