1.1 Background to the Study
Education is vital for human development and empowerment which offers an individual for all round advancement. Section 1 of the Nigerian National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) specifies the need for practical education to be appropriate, functional and acquisition of suitable skills and development of competencies as devices for the individual to live and add to the development of his society. This suggests that the high quality of instruction at all levels needs to be oriented to inculcating the values of acquisition of competencies required for self-reliance and reducing poverty.
In enhancing teaching and learning environment in Nigeria since 1990s the primary focus is on using participatory teaching methods. As revealed by Mulder & Ndabi (2004) participatory teaching method is a shift from conventional teacher centered pedagogy to learner-centered teaching techniques where learners create meaning of what they discover via active participation in the teaching and learning process (Meena, 2014). This assumption is based on the constructivist learning concepts designed by Piaget (1970), Vygotsky (1978) and Bruner (1996). The majority of the teachers in the secondary schools have been oriented to teaching methods based on traditional teaching methods where learners' participation is really limited.
Using conventional techniques where the one that gets get and the one that misses miss is caused by a variety of factors, for instance large class sizes, instructional materials, teacher qualification, top quality of the learner, institution management, environment surrounding the school and school culture Gibbs, & Simpson, (2004). Since constructivism suggests that knowledge is built by the individual, it has motivated the development of teaching/learning scenarios which stress and encourage participation of learners in the teaching and learning process. From traditional viewpoint Teaching is a way of imparting and transferring knowledge, skills, values, and experiences from one who understands to one who does not (Mulder & Ndabi, 2004). It is an art and science that involves particular techniques, which facilitates for every individual student to learn better. It is basically focusing on providing instructional material in a smooth and sequential manner (Jambo, 2012). According to Mhando (2001) learning is specified as "any type of change in psychological behavior that is lasting and the product of experience". On the other hand, he specified teaching as "the collaborated set of activities that require measuring student behavior reflecting instructional intent" (Haladyna & Beardsley, 2012).
According to Peterson (2007) teaching Methods are ways of managing the group of students in order to achieve designed educational objectives. Further, teaching techniques can be specified as the application of a number of teaching methods and expanding teachers' repertoire in order to maximize students' understanding. This implies that lecturers, teachers and instructors integrate various sets of teaching methods that not just help with learning but likewise simplify the instructional content being delivered to the students.
According to Beinomugisha, Jagero & Rwashema (2012) teaching techniques can be classified into two significant categories namely; participatory and non-participatory methods of teaching. Participatory teaching technique is that method whereby students are to the fullest engaged in teaching activities within their preferably learning styles. Commenting on this technique, Peterson (2007) supported that it produces learning where students are not passive members of teaching and learning process. This kind of teaching technique is included different teaching styles. These include; group-discussion, academic controversy (debating), role-play, problem-based learning, mind mapping, concept achievement, inductive learning.
Secondary education occupies a critical role in the performance of the economy and the education system itself. Experience shows that, most of individuals in both the personal and public fields are expected to be secondary education leavers. The whole primary education system depends on teachers who are a product of the secondary education system. A few of the participatory and non-participatory approaches recently made use of are a small group discussion, study trip, role play, discussion, Socratic and jig-saw strategies, guest speaker, Lecture method and demonstration (Ciupek-Reed, 2012).
The integration of participatory teaching and learning techniques in Nigerian education system has been a problem of serious issue. Several teachers and educationists mostly rely on long-established practices (Nara, 2011). As a matter of fact, some recent studies discovered that teachers in primary, secondary schools, teachers’ colleges, in addition to universities still dominant use lecture-citation techniques. Where participatory techniques have been deployed, they were badly used by lots of teachers, as students have been motivated to work in groups of five to six, mostly discussing questions without appropriate direction (Tilya & Mafumiko, 2010). Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the impact of participatory teaching methods in teaching business studies in Junior secondary school in Awka South LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As revealed by Khin Zaw (2001), the objectives of education can be summed up into three facets. The first objective is to assist the child to develop his personality. Second of all, it is to assist the child to associate himself to the society where he lives. Thirdly, it is to assist those who are growing up to be active and innovative forces in society. Nevertheless, in present situation in Nigeria, the focus of standard testing is based on achieving high scores. Teachers directly explain the facts and things in the book and only use formal instruction. Absence of students’ participation in learning process actively is one of the issues of current business studies in Junior secondary school in Awka South LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of participatory teaching methods in teaching business studies in Junior secondary school in Awka South LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are:
i) To examine the approaches used by the teachers in the teaching of business studies.
ii) To explain the extent to which participatory approach is used in the teaching and learning of Business Studies.
iii) To determine the challenges the teachers of Business Studies face while teaching using the participatory approach.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions guided this study:
i) What are the approaches used by the teachers in the teaching of business studies?
ii) To what extent in which participatory approach is used in the teaching and learning of Business Studies?
iii) What are the challenges the teachers of Business Studies face while teaching using the participatory approach?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses guided this study:
i) There is a significant relationship between approaches used by the teachers in the teaching of business studies.
ii) There is a significant influence of participatory approach used in the teaching and learning of Business Studies
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study should provide empirical information into the correlation between participatory learning and students‟ performance. The findings of the study have also played the role model in clarifying measures which enable students to participate in the teaching and learning process rather than staying passive.
The findings will be beneficial to the learners; pupils and students, teachers and curriculum developers especially in the area of the proposed approaches for use in the teaching of Business Studies. The results of this study provide guidelines for use in the teaching of Business Studies. This study explored the strategies and the approaches currently under use in the teaching of Business Studies and the extent to which the teachers used the participatory approach and the perceived outcomes. This research provides a better understanding on the instructional practice and the use of participatory approach and its impact in Business Studies teaching and learning. The study also contributes to the existing research on the Paulo Freirian’s participatory approach.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study was carried out in five selected secondary schools in Awka South LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria in an attempt to investigate the impact of participatory teaching methods in teaching business studies in Junior secondary school.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Participatory method: Participatory method is a form of reflective teaching approach which is sometimes turned as interactive teaching method or learner–centered approach. Under this method students have an ability to contribute their ideas during learning process and therefore the teacher is not a sole source of everything in academic endeavor therefore there must be interaction between teachers and students. It can also be defined Participatory teaching strategy is that method by which students are to the fullest engaged in teaching activities within their preferably learning styles (Beinomugisha, Jagero & Rwashema 2012).
Secondary school: Secondary education is the education a person gets after completing primary education. According to UNAIDS, (2000) define secondary education as a critical entry-point for the provision of appropriate health education necessary for young people to protect themselves from diseases since this age group demonstrates the greatest capacity to change behavior.
Teaching: Teaching can be referred as the range of professional duties performed by teachers in and outside a classroom environment. Teaching can be defined as a process of imparting and transmitting knowledge, skills, values, and experiences from one who knows to one who does not. It is an art and science that involves specific strategies, which facilitates for every individual student to learn better. It is essentially aiming at delivering instructional content in a smooth and sequential manner Jambo (2012).