Most studies that look into students’ performance, do not attach it with inadequacy or lack of educational resources. Just a few researchers have lamented on poor performance in secondary schools, but did not link this situation with inadequate quality instructional resources. These studies are clear that there is a problem in secondary schools and this is directly linked to inadequate quality educational resources. Against this background, this paper therefore examines influence of educational resources utilization on students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools in Badagry local government area of Lagos state with a view to ensuring the provision, availability and proper utilization of educational resources across secondary schools in Lagos State. The primary and secondary method of data collection was used in collection of data for the study. Primary data were obtained through the use of questionnaires and interview while the secondary data were obtained through review of relevant literature. The population of the study comprises all teachers of public secondary school in Badagry, Lagos state, out of which a sample of hundred (100) teachers were selected. Five schools were selected for the study, with twenty teachers selected from each school. Simple percentage method and correlation were used in analyzing the data collected. The study revealed that the availability and utilization of school resources make learning easier and enhances cognitive and effective domain of the students. With respect to the findings arrived at, recommendations were made that to improve students' academic achievement, the government should supply enough teaching-learning resources to schools and ensure that they are used by both instructors and students.
Also, teachers should be informed about the current state and progress in the use of facilities in senior secondary schools through regular workshops/seminars on the value of using facilities in teaching.
1.1 Background to the Study
The main aim of education is to bring about required change in behaviour through gaining of skills, attitudes, competencies, serious and creative thinking. Teaching is a complex and demanding task that requires highly specialized skills, knowledge and resources to impact meaningfully on student learning. Accessibility and utilization of resources in any establishment is significant in attainment of its aims and objectives. Students learning performance is affected by proper utilization of school resources. Investing in educational resources is key to guaranteeing that schools turn out to be institutions where students work together, learn from one another and gain from a supportive school environment, and therefore maximize student learning so that all students achieve their full learning potential (United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization, (UNESCO, 2007).
Educational materials serve as a link between the teacher and the students for delivering learning and teaching instructions. They may also serve as the drive on the teaching-learning process. It is used to get students’ attention and also remove boredom. Educational materials are very important for teaching; particularly for inexperienced teachers. Teachers rely on educational materials in every aspect of teaching. The materials are useful for the teachers for background information on the subject they are teaching.
Inexperienced teachers usually have not built upon their expertise when they enter into the field. Teachers often use educational materials for lesson planning. These materials are likewise needed by the teachers to assess the knowledge of their students. Teachers often measure students by assigning tasks, creating projects, and giving examinations. Educational materials are vital for all of these learning activities.
Utilization according to Ugwuanyi (2013) simply refers to the actual usage of the school facilities, equipment and supplies by the teacher in teaching. Umeozor, Uzonna Juliana (2019) explained utilization as a process of making use of available resources at the individual’s disposal. Umeozor, Uzonna Juliana (2019) opined that utilization is that something is equivalent to or fully adequate for a stated or implied requirement. It likewise implies how resources are utilized to achieve good results (Okoth, 2011). When resources are adequately available in schools, teachers get the satisfaction they need in utilizing them in teaching and their best performance in using the resources in the classroom is guaranteed. Teachers need educational resources in order to boost their concealed potentials, competences, performance and satisfaction. Satisfactory and quality facilities according to Ogunsaju (2000) must be put into optimum use in the system for developing the human resources like the teachers in order to ensure school effectiveness. Ogunsaju further emphasised that a situation whereby teachers are made to teach students without adequate use of educational resources should be discouraged and the need to support teachers with relevant teaching resources should be intensified.
Therefore, these facilities play a pivotal role in the actualization of the educational goals and purposes by satisfying the physical, emotional and mental needs of the staff and students. Abayomi and Olukayode (2006) positions that resources in schools are important in education because learning takes place best through detection, investigation, and interaction with the internal and external environments. As a result, one of the main prominences in education today is the moving from a teacher centred approach to a more learner centred approach. This involves practically putting the learner’s needs at the centre of activities. To achieve this goal, teachers need to make use of a wide variety of resources, which can improve the learning environment. The sufficiency of physical resources and teaching materials as well as their effective utilization has been a matter of serious concern to educators. The use of educational resources has a significant impact on the fruitful learning outcomes since it inspires and motivates students (Okorie, 2001).
Johan (2004) reveals that academic performance of students are closely linked to utilization and adequacy of teaching/learning resources in different dimensions; poor usage, underutilization, unqualified educators brings forth low educational achievement. The insufficiency of physical and material resources in schools is the main reason for learning outcome of students. Schools that do not have proper facilities such as workshops, laboratories, libraries, classrooms, teaching learning materials are unlikely to yield good results. The values of enabling effective learning and teaching embroils having the practical skills and putting the learners own experience into practice. They obtain inputs from the external environment in form of human and material resources, process them and empty the same into the society as finished products and services. The quality of the products has a significant relationship with the qualities of the facilities arrayed in the process of production.
On the other hand, ensuring the availability and utilization of resources is a responsibility of stake holders in education. The government make sure the implementation of the national policy on education is guaranteed by providing the conducive environment. In 2003, the government devised various means for schools in order to qualify for the funds popularly known as Tuition Waiver (TW). These funds provided by the government are thought to be used in purchasing resources such as textbooks, exercise books, laboratory equipment and chemicals, teaching and learning aids reference materials, teacher’s guides, chalk, dusters, registers and internal examinations.
Researchers like Hallak (1990); Wilcockson (1994), Lawal (1996), Ajayi (1999) and Owoeye (2000) have long recognized the influence of educational resources utilization on students’ academic performance while the improper management and lack of maintenance of these facilities will have negative impact on teachers and students in the teaching and learning activities. Carelessness in the maintenance of school facilities has many adverse effects. School facilities that are not well managed and maintained will no doubt have health hazards on pupils and teachers who use the facilities. For instance, Ogonor and Sanni (2001) reported the killing of pupils and teachers of a primary school in Nigeria when the school walls and roofs collapsed. Even large amount of money invested on school facilities are wasted when school buildings and equipment are left to deteriorate without maintenance. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the influence of educational resources utilization on students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Throughout this process educational resources otherwise called teaching aids meant to make instruction more purposeful, precise and a lot more fascinating to students are brought in display. There is a basic perception that science education is not achieving the wanted goals particularly with high incidence of students' poor performance in subjects like, physics, Mathematics, Biology and chemistry as well as other similar subjects at junior secondary certificate examination. This circumstance has presumed a precarious dimension in all secondary schools in Lagos State and especially in Badagry Local Government Area.
The failure of educational system to offer sufficient and suitable teaching-learning aids in order to enhance academic performance of students is of a great concern to government, educational institutions and various other concerned citizens. It is thought that if sufficient academic resources are offered to schools and are utilized properly in teaching-learning process, a much better performance might be achieved. Hence, the motivation of this study which seeks to find out the influence of educational resources utilization on students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the influence of educational resources utilization on students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, the specific objectives are:
i) To establish the importance of the availability and utilization of school resources and their effect on academic performance in secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
ii) To examine the nature and availability of human resources and their impact on academic performance in secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
iii) To investigate the impact of educational resources utilization and its impact on performance.
iv) To determine the educational instructional materials available in teaching and learning in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
v) To understand the factors that determine the selection of educational resources in teaching and learning
1.4 Research Questions
The followings were considered to be the research questions for this study:
i) What is the importance of the availability and utilization of school resources and their effect on academic performance in secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State?
ii) What is the nature and availability of human resources and their impact on academic performance in secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State?
iii) Does educational resources utilization have any impact on performance?
iv) What are the educational instructional materials available in teaching and learning in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State?
v) What are the factors that determine the selection of educational resources in teaching and learning?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following statements were considered to be the research hypotheses:
i) There is a significant relationship between availability and utilization of school resources and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
ii) There is a significant relationship between nature and availability of human resources and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The objective of this study was to find out whether teachers in senior secondary schools in Lagos State make optimum utilization of instructional materials and to also find out in general the contributions of instructional materials in teaching and learning process. Furthermore, the study aimed to find how resources utilsation can enhance the performance of students if teachers utilize instructional materials in teaching and learning. Consequently, the outcome of this study will be of great importance to teachers who are being constantly urged to diversify their teaching strategy by changing teaching strategy that can ensure optimum utilization of instructional materials. The teacher, who is called upon to teach, cannot succeed unless he or she is able to utilize appropriate instructional materials in teaching a particular content of the subject. In other to make teaching more meaningful, optimum utilization of instructional materials is to be employed (Mckenzie, 1998).
Another significance of this study is to bring awareness to teachers especially at the pre-service period, that diversification of teaching strategy is the gateway to proper utilization of educational resources. Objectives of curriculum planning and development as stated by Yusuf (2012) can only be successfully achieved when adequate opportunities are available to both learners and teachers to have suitable educational resources to interact with. Furthermore, if the teachers selecting resources take cognizance of the diverse backgrounds and interests of the learners, it will go a long way in enhancing and promoting teaching and learning.
The findings from this study would also assist policy makers (the officers of Federal Ministry of Education (FME) and relevant curriculum agencies) because, they will be further informed on the use of instructional materials for teachers and learners. According to Yusuf (2012), the period of self-government (before independence) witnessed great development and innovation in our educational system. This necessitated huge investment in the education sector and there was provision of facilities which were complemented by massive teacher training programmes. In other to determine whether the huge investment was yielding result, Western Regional government set up supervision (before independence) and the result was negative. From the statement above this research will also serve as a guide to the policy makers to see the justification for a great investment in the procurement of relevant, suitable and adequate instructional materials for teaching and learning.
Lastly, the study outcome will assist designers of various educational resources. When the various factors that enhance and promote the use of the various educational resources are taken into consideration, the various centers of educational technology both at institutional needs and at resources centers will benefit. They will be encouraged to produce more materials that are recent in teaching at secondary school level.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is limited to some selected public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Due to the limited time for the study and the financial involvement, it was not possible to involve the entire population of public senior secondary schools in Lagos State, rather the study was limited to Badagry Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
One of the limitations that the study encountered is inadequate funds and time. The study therefore only covered Badagry Local Government Area. For more conclusive results, all the Local Government Areas in the whole of Lagos State should be studied. Consequently, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to areas other than Badagry Local Government Area.
1.9 Operational Definition of Key Terms
The following terms are defined here below as they were used in the study;
Academic performance: refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.
Resource utilization: Use of something by a school especially to improve their results.
Teaching materials: Equipment and facilities that teachers use in the course of their teaching e.g. textbooks, chalk, duster, charts, computer laboratory chemicals and equipment.