Radio press reviews have made great impact on the society, specifically in information dissemination, since the establishment of the press in Nigeria. This study concentrates on examining the exposure to radio press reviews by Nigerian adults, using adults in Redeemer’s University as a case study. The study adopted survey research design. The data for the study was collected through the use of questionnaire which was administered personnel by the researcher to students and staff of Redeemer’s University. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of simple percentage, frequency and charts. The result of the analysis revealed that majority of the respondents that listen to Radio press review reported that radio press review has positive influence on the life of students and staff. The study also revealed that majority of the respondents do not have radio set but can have access to radio programme. The study recommends that Students and staff should be encouraged to listen to education programme as this will help educating them in their areas of specialization. Radio press reviews should be presenting in such a way that it will be easily understand by those listening to it.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Radio is an evolutionary animal, one which has adapted to the world around it. As technologies and consumption patterns change, radio has proven that it can adapt, (Berry, 2017). Anon (2016) notes that radio is an effective medium not only in informing the people but also creating awareness regarding many social issues and the need for social reformation, developing interest and initiating action. Radio in Nigeria has emerged as a strong and powerful tool of Nigeria’s popular culture. As a medium, it has been immensely used and valued over the years and is one of the oldest mass mediums still in existence. Familusi & Owoeye (2014) stated that radio begun in 1895 when Gugliemo Marconi, proved the feasibility of radio communication. It was introduced in Nigeria in 1933 by the British colonial government.
Radio lends itself just as well to rapid interventions as to the broadcasting of in-depth reports and is just suitable for the dissemination of information as it is for entertainment and educational purposes (Familusi & Owoeye, 2014). Communication is indeed the life-blood of every society, as commonly said, and the medium, radio, through its press reviews, has greatly helped and is still helping better information and communication processes in Nigeria. Radio press review has, over the years, recorded great impact. It is still making a difference in information dissemination processes. However, in recent times, there appears to be a decline in the listenership of radio press reviews. Wilfred (2009) states that prior to the 1980s, the media world relied principally upon print and analogue broadcast models, especially the ones us bned by television and radio stations. But the last twenty five years have been a transformation period, as rapid transformation in the sector has been witnessed. He further ascertains that this rapid transformation in the media is largely predicated upon the use of digital computers, such as the Internet and other portable digital devices like mobile phones, iPods, MP3 Players and so on. He notes that digital computers have transformed the remaining ‘old’ media (radio, television, newspaper) as suggested by the advent of digital television and online publications.
A research conducted by Berry (2014) to compare the radio listening audience of 2014 and 2012 established a decrease in the medium’s listening audience. It found 83.9% in 2012 and 77.4% in 2014. This showed that the listening audience declined within two (2) years. The usage of the Internet at least weekly for news, on the other hand, increased from 23.2 per cent to 28.2 per cent. The study further established that more than half of Nigerians aged thirty four (34) or younger receive news via SMS (text message) as do more than three-quarter of those with at least secondary school education. The fact that radio is an accessible, mobile and affordable medium, it is rather uncanny to know that the listening audience is declining. Another study done by Owsinki (2019) provides an outlook for radio over the next 10 years. It stated that “the traditional radio has failed to engage with Generation Z (individuals born after 1995) and its influence and relevance will continue to decline unless it reinvents itself”. It also found that among 12-24 year olds, AM/FM radio (50%) becomes less influential, trailing YouTube (80%), Spotify (59%), and Pandora (53%). On account of this, the reason for the decline, specifically in radio press reviews, will be analysed in this study. The study will not only look into the latter but also establish the number of individuals inclined to listening to radio press reviews and draw the attention of those who do not, to the radio information dissemination platform. In line with this, the research will examine the exposure to radio press reviews by Nigerian adults, using adults in Redeemer’s University as a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Radio press reviews have made great impact on the society, specifically in information dissemination, since the establishment of the press in Nigeria. The fact that the radio medium is accessible and affordable has made it even easier to get information. Pate (2006) describes radio as “the most patronised means of mass communication in Nigeria”. Olusola (2007) indicated in his work, that the digital revolution has affected all aspects of media profession: production, distribution, storage, use of even the media professionals and the profession as a whole. The adult listening audience of radio press reviews have declined even if the platform is accessible and reliable. According to Owsinki (2019), adults are predisposed to the radio media platform of information dissemination and yet still prefer to use other media platforms like the internet and television to get information (on press reviews). These issues will be examined and analysed in this study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are:
- To examine how frequently adults listen to radio press reviews.
- To find out what adults mostly listen to on the radio.
- To ascertain how inclined adults are to listening to radio press reviews.
- To find out the benefit they derive from listening to radio press reviews.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are the research questions that will guide this study:
RQ1: How frequently do adults listen to radio press reviews?
RQ2: What do adults mostly listen to on the radio?
RQ3: How inclined are adults to listening to radio press reviews?
RQ4: What benefit do they derive from listening to radio press reviews?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research is to ascertain the exposure to radio press reviews of adults in Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State in 2020.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
There is no doubt that the radio listening audience has decreased as a result of advanced technology which has ushered in new media platforms that the radio press review listening audience apparently prefers. This study finds out the proportion of adults who listen to radio press reviews and somewhat establishes the extant importance of radio press reviews. This study will also be of use for other researchers and scholars, as literature for them, to enable replication and further research.
1.7 LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY
The study focuses on adults in Redeemer’s University, and so the extent to which its findings can be generalised, is limited. Also, getting the total population of the students and staff of Redeemer’s University was a problem as the information was not disclosed to students.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The key terms defined below have the meaning ascribed to them hereunder in this study.
EXPOSURE: According to the Cambridge English Dictionary (2019), exposure is the fact of experiencing something or being affected by it because of being in a particular situation or place. It means that one is open to a particular thing and that certain thing has the capacity to influence an individual. In other words, one is experiencing that particular thing in that situation or place and that experience will have an effect on an individual in one way or the other. Exposure in this research work suggests the influence, familiarity and purpose of radio press reviews as it relates to adults in Redeemer’s University.
PRESS: The press is generally individuals and/or organizations that gather news to disseminate to the public mostly through the mass mediums available, which are: newspaper, radio, television or the internet. The press can be individuals who work for media organizations or they can be freelancers or stringers. The press performs the activity of gathering, assessing, creating and presenting news and information. In some cases, the press is referred to the print media like newspapers, blogs, magazines, etc. But these days, it includes radio, television, internet and other mass mediums.
REVIEW: A review is an evaluation of a publication that has been disseminated by media platforms. It can also be seen as an analysis (sometimes a critical analysis) of a particular publication in order for the publication to be more understandable and clearer to those reading or listening to it. It can also be seen as an examination of a particular work in order to aid effective comprehension. Reviewing a literary work will entail analyzing and evaluating the work. This applies to media publications as well, as it is what is being examined in this study.
PRESS REVIEW: According to Worldwide Public Relations (2004), a press review gives a rundown of the news by summarizing different articles. While a summary is done, an analysis is done in the process. Press reviews are usually an analysis of newspapers of any well-known newspaper organization. During the course of the analysis, a better understanding of the headline, article, comment, or whatever it is in the newspaper that is in analysis. Press reviews usually bring issues to the plain of discussion. Press reviews expatiate on the news and how it affects the people, majorly in terms of issues being addressed in a society. Press reviews come in different forms; could be analysing headlines, analysing articles, analysing comments, etc. Sometimes guests, who are fully equipped in such areas of publication analysis, are invited to expatiate on the press reviews.
RADIO: Your Dictionary.com (2019) defines radio as the communication over distance when sounds are converted to electromagnetic waves and sent to a receiver that transfers the waves back to sounds. Radio can also be seen as the wireless transmission of electric signals by the means of electromagnetic waves. It is basically a technology or a device of communicating using radio waves. Radio is a means of broadcasting programmes to the public to listen to it by sending signals out through a transmitter.
ADULTS: Adults are individuals that have matured and are fully developed. They are legally responsible for their actions. Adulthood varies from country- country. However, in Nigeria, adulthood begins from eighteen years (18). For this research, the age range will be eighteen (18) years and above.
STUDY: According to Business Dictionary.com (2019), a study is a systematic research, examination, identification, and understanding of the aspects or factors associated with an activity, event, phenomenon, situation, etc. A study can also mean a critical analysis of a particular element.