Schools are seen as the preferred environment to transform productive and useful citizens of any nations as decent discipline is one of the key attributes of effective schools. However, the rate of indiscipline in secondary schools nowadays keeps increasing. This study therefore, investigate the selected factors influencing indiscipline among secondary school students in illshan Remo Ogun State. The study employed survey research design. The study used total enumeration due to the size and homogeneity of the population. The data of study were collected through the use of questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and regression. The findings of the study revealed that there is high level of indiscipline in the selected schools. Also, it was found that parental influence, peer pressure, economic factors and schools environmental factors are the selected factors responsible for indiscipline in secondary schools. Furthermore, it was found that parental influence, peer pressure, economic factors and schools environmental factors have positive and significant influence on indiscipline among secondary schools students. The study recommends that Parents, the school and religious bodies that are charged with moral training of children should ensure that sound moral education is given to children.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The concept indiscipline is viewed as a behavior that directly defines the character of a human being. In the society, indiscipline is a product of unacceptable values that an individual subscribes to which regulates his or her conduct and relations with others. It is also suggested that there are good behaviors, acceptable moral and social conduct that are exhibited by members of the society. However, behaviors that does not conform to these accepted standards or values in the society or any social institution can be regarded as indiscipline. In the context of education especially secondary schools system. Indiscipline is seen as an element of bad conduct. It is an action against established set of rules administered to students for smooth learning. The rules and regulation set in most secondary schools cover areas such as dress code, timekeeping, school schedule and social behavior. It is expected that violation of the rules constitutes indiscipline which may amount to punishment. Peck (2007) assert that various behavioral disorders like stealing, violence, drug abuse, examination malpractice, sexual abuse constitutes indiscipline in schools.
According to Richard (2007) indiscipline implies lack of self-control and disobedience resulting in blatant violation of rules and regulations which in turns creates mayhem and commotion. The resultant effect of indiscipline are stealing, robbery and other related crimes. It is believed that indiscipline is the distortion of controlled moral and mental behavior. Danuma (2013) argues that it is the refusal to follow rules and regulations of a given society. Hence, indiscipline is an act of wrong doing in the school, not conforming to lay down rules and regulation of the school. Also, a behavior which is a disregard to lay down standard of behaviors. Among students however, indiscipline manifest in unruly behaviors exhibited by students inside and outside school. Indiscipline among students is one the most challenges faced by secondary school administrators.
According to Maphosa (2011) indiscipline has taken centre stage for a long time both internationally and nationally. The researcher assert that there are many cases of indiscipline such as classroom disorders. Hence, for effective learning to take place there must be some form of discipline among students. Also, Nakpodia (2010) assert that indiscipline is an unacceptable behavior expressed by students. It is a disrespect for school authority, disobedience of set rules and regulations and non-maintenance of established standards of behavior. Rules and regulations in secondary schools describes ways of thinking, they are seen as guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions.
Thornberg, (2008) argues that students are disciplined in school to regulate and organize their activities. It helps an individual to be well adjusted and happy. This assertion corroborates the work of Zubaida (2009) who pointed out that, the purpose of discipline is to provide conditions which promote learning. Hence, it is meant to discourage academic conduct of students that are disorderly. In addition, literature establishes that most behavioral acts of indiscipline expressed by students in secondary schools are fighting, shouting, snatching other learners’ property, bullying, cheating, viewing pornographic materials, threatening teachers. These list of inordinate behaviors corroborates the assertion credited to Koutseline (2002) who noted that indiscipline is any student behavior that deviates from school expectations which may amount to a serious obstacle to learning.
Furthermore, Jordan (1995) explains that indiscipline’s in schools amounts to noise making, vandalism, smoking marijuana, drinking alcohol, tardiness, truancy. Therefore, these unacceptable behaviors is seen in all educational institutions globally. Larson (2008) reported in his study conducted in the USA that 36% of students in grade 9-12 had been in a physical fight. Also, 4% of teachers in the inner city and 3% of 2 suburban and rural school teachers were physically assaulted by students. In another study conducted in Ghana, Danso (2010), reported high rate of indiscipline and lawlessness in educational institutions. The researcher stated that the act of indiscipline perpetrated by teenagers in secondary schools cannot be over emphasized and established that drug abuse, rape, armed robbery are the resultant effect of indiscipline in schools. Kuntz (2000) also reported that secondary school teachers both private and state school are confronted with bad behaviors destruction of school equipment and furniture which impede normal school routine.
In a research conducted by Bowen, Heron, Steer and El-Konmy (2008) the scholars established that acts of indiscipline covers elements such as inappropriate use of school materials as well as the use of threatening languages, disrespect for others, arguing with both teachers and students. Phiri (2011) reported in their study that indiscipline’s are disruptive behaviors which interferes with the teaching process and upsets the normal running of the school. Alidzulwi (2000) reported in his study that most secondary schools have developed into battlefields, students carry weapons such as guns to schools, students stab their educators and fight each other. This is may be the reason why it is noted in literature that no meaningful teaching and learning can be attained if students are not disciplined. Therefore, the concept indiscipline in secondary schools may be caused by many factors such as self-worth and belief system that predispose the students to unhealthy behaviors.
In contextualization, the concept of indiscipline seems to be very common in public secondary schools of which the students in the secondary schools in ilishan Remo are not immune to this bad behaviors that constitute indiscipline; an observation show that students in public secondary schools in Ilishan Remo seems to go late to school, this act of lateness often leads to a habitual lateness due to decadence in the schools. When students don’t get to school early and are turned back they tend to engage in social vices. Students in Ilishan Remo secondary schools unlike most students play football around the school environment where their teachers cannot see them especially when class are ongoing. It seems to be a common practices in the secondary schools that students gamble and watch long hour movies during the class time and loiter a great deal. Furthermore, disagreement and fighting is a common practice, they fight and quarrel over so many minor issue in schools especially during decisions making among peers.
Further preliminary observation show that some students seems to go against school rules and regulations with respect to dressing. Some students do not dress properly to school following the lay down rules for school dress code leading to disagreement and confrontation between the students and the teachers. This act of disagreement often results in chaos in the school when they are not in line with the expectation of the students. It is a normal human behavior to disagree and agree over things, however the level of disagreement needs to be controlled. This is because if it’s not controlled fighting can result due to the level of students maturity. Also, when dangerous elements like gang groups are in the middle of the disagreement the issues becomes a community crisis. The reason for the disagreement will shift from the rules of the schools to supremacy of gang groups. The concept of indiscipline is so sadden because it often lead to death, serious injury, disturbances and destruction of public properties. Schools have the power to enforce these rules by using discipline or punishment.
Indiscipline of students in secondary schools may be as a result of factors such as peer influence. Mukama (2005) is of the view that when a child begins school, he or she moves from the family environment and begins to relate more to his or her peer group. This is the phase where the young people feel accepted and where they feel free to speak of things that are important to them. Such groups have a considerable influence on the behaviour and attitudes of the individual, since they participate in their activities in order not to be rejected. Peer group influences what the child values, knows, wears, eats and learns. Literature affirm that peer relationships influences the growth of behaviour in youth. The group have the tendency of demanding blind obedience to a group norm, which can result in social gang groups. According to Ndubusi (2013) poor peer relationships is associated with social cognitive skill deficits. He further stated that this peer group influence may be as a result the inability of the family to meet the needs of the child. Hence, other adults who play a significant role in the child’s life have extraordinary potential for influencing the child. According to James (2019) peer influence can lead to discipline problems and delinquent behaviours in school. This is because, when a student come in contact with a deviant youth, he or she may become more deviant through unrestricted interactions.
Another contributing factor to student’s indiscipline in secondary schools seems to be Parental factor. Parents are regarded as very important in the act of training students. Therefore, lack of parental involvement is the major cause of indiscipline in secondary schools. It is generally believed that most of the in disciplinary caused in the school are as a result of challenges which emanated from home. The home is a place where every child should be disciplined and trained with proper upbringing. Issue such as support from parents, type of parenting could be a contributing factor to indiscipline of the student in school. Okolie (2014) reported that social background remains one of the major sources of educational inequality. This assertion implies that educational success depends largely on the socio-economic status of one’s parents. Literature affirm that most students in secondary schools are from broken homes, suggesting that they can be unhappy, insecure, and frustrated due to an unhappy home. Also, some of the students can go the length of stealing and pick pocketing. Parents contribute also to the indicipline of students where they engage and give alcoholic drinks, cigarettes, hard drugs, to their children. This act may lead to armed robbery, thuggery, theft, damaging of public property and killing fellow human being.
Furthermore, in the home some parents argue in the presence of their children which leads to fighting. Gang activities and secret cults in schools viewed as a result of parents given excess stipends to their children. Lack of home control of Children of wealthy parents constitutes major challenge of indiscipline in schools. According to Ede (2001) parents use their position to thwart disciplinary measures made in schools especially when they affect their children. It is reported by Alidzulwi (2000) that many parents are not involved in the education of their children, causing poor results, high dropout rates, and the absence of discipline in schools. Therefore the failure of parents to teach their children at home is identified as the greatest contributing factor to disciplinary problems in schools. This assertion is noted by Louw and Barnes (2003) who reported that that they don’t see a problem child, only problem parents. Hence, parents show a lack of tolerance, respect towards educators and have a laissez-faire approach towards their children.
Apart from parenting, another factor that can contribute is economic factors. It is reported by researchers that children who experience social alienation from others are often misbehaved. Henry (2007) conducted a study and reported that 33.5% of high school students who exhibits indiscipline did not live with their mother or father, 27.6% lived with their father only, 19.8% lived with their mother only, and 14.4% lived with both parents. Therefore, the likelihood that a student would behave badly increases when the student lives with only one parent. Also, the researcher noted that students who work more than 20 hours per week, greatly increase their chances of indiscipline in school. Therefore, when there is an economic in balance at home, the child suffers and may likely behave badly. Also, the school environment. School administrators ensure that school provides a safe and orderly environment in which teaching and learning can take place. However, personnel intimacy between a teacher and student leads to disciplinary problems. Students are band to respond to social life in a way that is deviant such as breaking school rules, examination malpractices, and insubordination amongs others. Students from rich families are not punished by the school administrators whenever they misbehave. Some teachers tamper with food meant for students. According to Ede (2001) some teachers dress very badly to school, some come to school drunk, some sexually harass their students.
Finally, secondary schools have rules and regulation that must be followed. It makes rules for the good order of the school and the discipline of students. These rules and regulations are meant to keep students in check and disciplined. Therefore, good discipline in a school is required to ensure that school is able to provide quality education for all students and to guarantee the care and safety of the school community. A lawless school environment promotes disciplinary challenges to the school. It is believed that the factors that promotes indiscipline varies from one school to another as well as from location. However, this study intends to investigate the factors responsible for indiscipline in secondary schools in Ilishan Remo Ogun state.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Indiscipline is the distortion of controlled moral and mental behavior. It is a lack of self-control and disobedience leading to the violation of established rules and regulations. In the secondary schools, indiscipline is manifested in the exhibition of delinquent behaviors such as noise making, fighting among students bulling, threats to school management, stealing, not attending certain classes and inappropriate use of school materials. Indiscipline among students in secondary schools is becoming alarming which goes contrary to the objective of secondary schools as a place saddled with the responsibility of training students to be better responsible citizens of a country. Preliminary observations from this researcher alongside empirical evidence show that indiscipline has become the order of the day in most public secondary schools in which the secondary schools in Ilishan Remo are not excluded.
The question however remains with what is the cause of indiscipline in schools?. Therefore it is the intent of this researcher to investigate the selected factors influencing indiscipline in illshan Remo Secondary School Ogun State, Nigeria
1.2 Objective of the study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the selected factors influencing indiscipline among secondary school students in illshan Remo Ogun State. The specific objective are to:
- Determine the level of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
- Identify the factors responsible for indiscipline among secondary school students illshan Remo Ogun, Nigeria
- Find out the level of influence of parenting, peer pressure, school environment, and economic factors on indiscipline among secondary school students in illshan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
- Find out ways of reducing indiscipline among secondary school students in illshan Remo Ogun, Nigeria
1.4 Research question
The following research questions guided of the study.
- What is the level of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
- What are the factors responsible for indiscipline among secondary school students in illshan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
- To what level does parenting, peer pressure, school environment, and economic factors influence indiscipline among secondary school students in illshan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
The following null hypothesis was formulated to guide this study and will be tested at 0.05 level of significance
- Parenting factors will not significantly influence indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
- Peer pressure will not significantly influence indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
- School environment will not significantly influence indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
- Economic factors will not significantly influence indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
1.6 Scope of the study
The selected factors to be considered in this study are parenting, peer pressure, school environment, and economic factors. This study will cover the two public secondary schools in ilishan Remo Ogun State. These schools are Ishanbi high School, Ishanbi Model College and it will cover students in the SS2 class only from the two schools. Therefore, private secondary schools are excluded from this study as well as lower level classes in the school under study.
1.7 Significance of the study
Indiscipline problems persist in all schools. Therefore, this study is significant in that it will help school policy makers, administrators and teachers to know the causes of student indiscipline and therefore be in a better place to create conducive environment devoid of high level of student indiscipline. The finding will also assist teachers to develop new strategies for addressing indiscipline in schools. The findings of this study will enlighten parents on the need to train their wards at home so that they can behave well at school, the community and the society as a whole. The study will serve as template for decision making, by educators, policy makers to make policies on strategies for improving the conducive learning environment. Finally it will serve as a contribution to body of literature in the field of education and will be a reference tool for future studies in case of wider scope.
1.8 Operational definition of terms
The following terms are defined in relations to this study.
Selected factors influencing indiscipline: These are peer pressures, parenting, school environment and economic factors that leads to indiscipline of students in secondary schools
Peer pressure: Peer pressure are elements such as peer support, violent responses, peer victimization, status that direct influence secondary second students on their peers in the secondary schools
Parenting: Parenting in this study is the process of supporting the emotional, physical, social and spiritual development of a student by a parent.
School environment: School environment is the physical level of conduciveness of the secondary schools in Ilishan Remo for learning purposes.
Economic factors: Economic factors are factors such as salary and wages of the parents that tend to affect students in the secondary schools in Ilishan Remo.
Indiscipline: Indiscipline is the act such as disobedience to schools rules, fighting, noise making, stealing, stabbing, cultism, lateness and loitering that are not morally acceptable.
Student indiscipline: Students indiscipline are undesirable attitudes such as breaking school rules, fighting, noise making, stealing, stabbing, cultism, lateness, bullying, vandalism and loitering by students in secondary schools.
Students: A person who is studying at the secondary schools in Ilishan Remo Ogun State