Background to the Study
Academic performance is not considered based on student comparison with others but with a certain standard of examination scores. The score is the determinant for measurement. Examination is the measurement for differentiating student’s level of knowledge for them to go further in their studies, gaining scholarship and obtain better entry level at top universities (Habibah et al., 2011).According to Duruji, Azuh and Oviasogie (2014),academic performance refers to the degree of a student’s accomplishment in his or her tasks and studies. The most well-known indicator of measuring academic performance is grades which reflect the student's "score" for their subjects and overall tenure. Success is measured by academic performance in most educational institutions. In this case, how well a student meets standards set out by an institution itself or an external examination body either set up by the government or an independent outfit signifies success or good performance.
According to Olaitan (2017), academic performance is a very important tool with which the success, ability and capability of a student to contribute to the development of a society are measured. The implication of this is that students that perform beyond average of the standard set by the society is not only seen as brilliant but as well probable to contribute meaningfully to the sustenance, growth and development of such society, especially, in the future. As a result of this, every society constantly observe the academic performance of its students at all levels of educational institutions.
Academic performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important, procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts (Annie, Howard, Mildred 1996). Academic achievement are accomplished by these students in their studies are nothing (Scortt’s 2012). Academic achievement means the students’ ability to write or orally communicate exactly the fact or the content. This also reflects to what extent the educational system has achieved their goals. Academic achievement indicates the extent to which the students have a mastery of the subject.
The outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic resulted to the closure of schools around the world. During this period, many initiatives were adopted to ensure that school children especially those in exit classes keep learning and studying. One major strategy was online learning. The online Learning has been in existence before COVID 19. This lead to the introduction of online learning platforms through the internet. Online learning platforms are designed to assist students with learning activities using the internet. In online learning, the teachers and the students are connected to each other through electronic devices such as Zoom, Whatsaap, Google class, Facebook live and websites. According to Bentley and Golek (2004) online learning is a form of distance learning or distance education which has long been a part of the American education system and it has become the largest sector of distance learning in recent years. Online learning becomes effective because of introduction of high technologies in educational sector.
Agostin and Nosella (2020), emphasis that the continual advancement in information can be transmitted in soft copy format and converted into hard copy format through printing. In clear terms of online learning, Eze, Chinedu-Eze, Okike and Adenike (2020), explained that online learning refers to computer-based e.g digital, videos, tablet, projector, operating system). Learning process which links digital contents, system-based administration and monitoring support and in the interaction of students and teachers, Michael (2009), noted that online learning is more or less a new form of education where students use their home computer through the support of the internet to study. Online learning is popular among people who want to work and learn. It is digital means of transmitting knowledge to the learner and it is readily available to learner with the help of the internet in form of audio, video and texts. According to Shola (2008), online education is an electronically enhanced learning that basically uses the internet for its operation that allows teachers and students interact and distribution of class material. Tunmibi, Ayooluwa, Adejoba and Olanyi (2015), stated that the provision of an e-learning system is an important factor in providing a comprehensive ICT solutions within schools. Blackboard and other similar systems provide an easy to use, well structured medium to assist learning and teaching because students and teachers are able to access information from anywhere around the world.
Statement of the Problem
The outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic had resulted to the closed down of schools around the world to mitigate the spread of the virus that have killed many people within a short time. According to UNESCO, approximately 1.2 billion learners were out of school and about three quarter of the world’s school population had been affected by school closure due to measures in order to contain the pandemic. In Nigeria, about 2 million pre-primary, 225 million primary schools and 10 million secondary school learners across Nigeria were affected. During the period the lockdown lasted.
Pokhrel and Chhetric (2021), noted that there is paradigm shift in the way educators deliver quality education through various online platforms. The online learning, distance and continuing education have become a panacea for this unprecedented global pandemic, despite the challenges posed to both educator and learners. However, the measurement of the adoption of online learning during lockdown is the level of academic performance among the students. Before the school close down, online learning has been seen as a very important platforms for learning. What was not ascertain is that the level of academic performance of secondary school children in Nigeria base on the introduction of online learning during the lockdown. Therefore, this study seeks to identify whether there is significant contributions of online learning to academic performance of secondary school students in Ethiope East Local Government Area during the lockdown policy?
The following research questions were used to guide the study.
i. What is the frequency of the usage of online learning platforms during COVID-19 lockdown by secondary school students in Ethiope East LGA?
ii. What is the impact of online learning during COVID-19 lockdown on academic performance of secondary school students in Ethiope East LGA?
iii. What is the perception of students towards online learning to the academic performance of students in Ethiope East LGA?
iv. What are the challenges of adopting online learning in secondary schools in Ethiope East LGA?
v. What are the solutions to the challenges of adopting online learning in secondary schools in Ethiope East LGA?
HO1 There is no significant usage the of online learning platforms during COVID-19 lockdown by secondary school students in Ethiope East LGA..
HO2 There is no significant impact of online learning during COVID-19 lockdown on academic performance of secondary school students in Ethiope East LGA..
HO3 There is no significant students perception towards online learning on academic performance in Ethiope East LGA.
HO4 There are no significant challenges of adopting online learning in secondary schools in Ethiope East LGA..
HO5 There is no significant solutions to the challenges of adopting online learning in secondary schools in Ethiope East LGA.
Purpose of the Study
The general objective of the study is the contributions of online learning during COVID 19 pandemic lockdown on academic performance of students in secondary school in Ethiope East LGA while the followings are specific purposes.
- Identify the frequency of the usage of online learning platforms during COVID-19 lockdown by secondary school students in Ethiope East LGA
- Establish the impact of online learning during COVID-19 lockdown on academic performance of secondary school students in Ethiope East LGA
- Determine the perception of students towards online learning to the academic performance of students in Ethiope East LGA
- iv. Ascertain the challenges of adopting online learning in secondary schools in Ethiope East LGA
- v. Find out the solutions to the challenges of adopting online learning in secondary schools in Ethiope East LGA
Delimitation/Scope of the Study
The conceptual scope of the study is online learning, COVID 19 pandemic lockdown on academic performance of secondary school students in Ethiope East LGA. The study periodic frame covers a period of nine months. That is from April to December 2020.
Significance of the Study
Students, teachers and school administrators will benefit from this study. First, students will benefit from this study because the result will reveal to them the positive impact of using online learning platform to increase their academic performance. Furthermore, the findings will help to understand the perception of students towards the adoption of online learning during the period for academic performance.
Secondly, the teachers in secondary schools will be exposed to the impact of online platform in teaching students with ease and how these online platforms are manipulated to enhance teaching and learning in secondary school. The result will also increase the knowledge of teachers about online learning platform usage in teaching and learning.
School administrator will benefit from this study because the outcome will help them re-strategized in the adoption of online learning platforms and the abundant benefits on academic performance of students in their schools. Finally, the study will be a reference materials to academicians since the study is novel because of the period of the study and circumstances associated to COVID-19 pandemic.
Limitation of the Study
The researcher faces some challenges while carrying out the research. The research was faced with the challenge of sourcing for secondary data that relate to COVID 19 pandemic and school adoption of online learning.
Operational Definition of the Study
Online Learning: This is an electronic platform of teaching and learning for better understanding of school curriculum
COVID-19: This is a variant of SARS-2 Corona Virus which was discovered in Wuham in December 2019.
Academic Performance: This is the level of academic success or failure as a result of previous test of competence.