1.1 Background to the Study
The efficiency of firms is dependent on viability of time utilization, which is the need of many incumbents. The administration of time is an issue which is principal to efficiency at work. In the past, consideration regarding the association between time management and job performance was confined to manual laborers, and thereafter, to employees working at the clerical level. The significance of time management for managers and executive professional does not receive great attention until recent. Current methodologies depend on the supposition that work efficiency by an employee is fundamentally associated with effective utilization of time.
Issues pertaining to time management can be categorized in three main areas which are relevant to employment nature, personality traits of the job holder and individuals who define job roles for employees. Employment nature provides the major control over one’s job. Job roles that involves more public dealing involves more pressure at the workplace than employees whose jobs involves less or no public interaction. In the similar momentum, individuals who are at the introductory and developing stage of the employment will suffer more work clash and unexpected work demands than somebody working in a built up position, where consistency and routine are the request of the day.
A major challenge for any employee is to set priorities at work. Organizations that practice managerial approaches such as MBO will offer more organized work responsibilities to employees due to which employees are better able to manage time (Rodgers and Hunter, 1991). However, this systematic approach to work with time management is not practiced by employees in an organizations. A valuable technique is to urge people in recognizing the job roles for which they are individually in charge of and either require the best exertion or produce the best return. When people have recognized there key roles and responsibilities, they can talk about these with their superiors or with a mentor. It is insufficient, nonetheless, just to consider occupation needs. It is essential to consider what the individual employment holder needs to do so as to satisfy them. A few occupations call for sound grip of administration-related skills and companies policies while other roles emphasizes not only on public interaction and responsive behavior towards customer needs but also require specialized and master learning with the capacity to apply it.
Hence, it is essential for employee to assess the roles and responsibilities associated with their respective jobs. Different employees have different capacity and traits to perform his/her job. Some employees are more productive in the first half of the day, while other are more efficient in the second half of the day. A few employees like to space out their work exertion while others like to pack their exertion into short serious periods. Some people are more effective at work while performing one particular assignment at a time while other enjoy multi-tasking at a time. Few employees are work-centered while other are more socialized and enjoy rapport with the people inside and outside the organization. In an organization, there are employees who prefer to delegate their responsibilities to others while others like to do the work on their own. In any organization, few employees are structured and organized at work while others are disorganized and jumbled at work. Some incumbents are more gifted or experienced than others.
Whatever the job role-type an incumbent is performing, it is strongly dependent on effectively managing the time. Effective time management require self-discipline of an employee in three main job settings: dealing with peers or colleagues of his or her own job role, the physical surroundings and the cultural factor of an organization. Thus the role an individual employee with respect to its interaction with people plays an effective role in the utilization of the time. A meddling supervisor, for instance, can be extremely upsetting. While, a manager who is a successful delegator can be a positive wellspring of assistance in distinguishing work needs. Subordinates' capacities to work adequately all alone, as opposed to looking for guidance from their administrator constantly, can empower the last to chip away at individual assignments without undue interferences. Co-workers may often be source for squandered time, particularly when they call into your office during an era when they themselves are less occupied, or need a short break from what they are really going after. Senior or experienced individuals from any gathering will find that they are routinely searched out by junior individuals wishing to clear up a point or examine a quick issue. Every one of these exercises have their advantages, yet the expense of any one individual's time.
In today’s era, employees in most of the organization settings are expected to behave with their co-workers or peers as internal customers. As a result, employees face additional pressure to perform result-oriented job in a timely manner. This demands more vigilance from the organizational professionals to be adaptive thereby meeting the client needs or resolve the queries while ensuring that its subordinate staff meets the requirements of the customers effectively. On the other hand, physical surroundings may help or hinder a person’s effort to make better use of his or her time. Clearly, if you do not have an office, then there are no real physical barriers that you can erect between you and all those who, however well intentioned, wish to interrupt your work. Those who do have an office of their own can always shut the door, even at the risk of a certain amount of unpopularity. It is against this backdrop that this study aims to examine the effect of time management on employees’ performance by using Silver Bird Cinema, Lagos, Nigeria as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the professional world of national and multinationals organization, time is considered as hallmark of an organizational success. In other words, firms believe that more time management will lead to more productive outcomes both in monetary and non-monetary terms (Pohlman & Gardiner, 2000). As a result, effective time is considered as a critical factor for both employees and organizational productivity. Time management concept is further enhanced with the concept of “employee time management” where employees are expected to superbly manage their time at work. Despite of the significance time management has acquired in the business world, it is yet unknown whether Silver Bird Cinema, Lagos, Nigeria, values time management in order to help increase employees’ performance in the organization.
Organization has encountered various problems pertaining to inefficiencies in managing time and performing job effectively. These include: Time management has become challenge for technical staff who work on shift timings and they have to respond timely to the client queries. Less maintenance of self-discipline, issues pertaining to team-building and random and unscheduled visits by different people who look for the consideration of the chief or different representatives. Consequently, this will make the organization to face interruptions and a less productive results by employees. Asides from Silver Bird Cinema, Lagos, Nigeria, many organizations has reported with idle talk activities by employees. At the same time, employees are performing not at par in comparison to the contemporaries in the other parts of the world. Thus, this study seeks to investigate the effect of time management on employees’ performance by using Silver Bird Cinema, Lagos, Nigeria as a case study.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of time management on employees’ performance by using Silver Bird Cinema, Lagos, Nigeria as a case study. However, the specific objectives are:
i) To examine the impact of time management on employees’ performance
ii) To establish the relationship between time management and employees’ performance
iii) To study the impact of effective time management in an organization
iv) To highlight the challenges of time management by employees in the organization
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are what this study shall provide answers to:
i) What is the impact of time management on employees’ performance?
ii) What is the relationship between time management and employees’ performance?
iii) What is the impact of effective time management in an organization?
iv) What are the challenges of time management by employees in the organization?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
i) There is no significant correlation between time management and employees’ performance
ii) There is no significant relationship between time management and employees’ performance
iii) There is no significant relationship between time management and organizational performance
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will give a clear insight on the effect of time management on employees’ performance in organization. It will be of help to any organization and the employee. The study will help enlighten how to manage time on employees’ performance in organization. The study will be of help to others research which the study will serve as reference.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers the effect of time management on employees’ performance by using Silver Bird Cinema, Lagos, Nigeria as a case study. Therefore the respondents that were used to carry out this research work will be staff members of Silver Bird Cinema, Lagos, Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The following challenges were considered to be factors that limited the conduct of this study:
a) Availability of research material: the research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) Time: the implicit of time between when the researcher is free and when the respondent is free to attend to researcher, most management staff where either to bust or not on seat to attend to the researcher, while the researcher is having time conflict with lectures, assignment and other academic pursuit. Finally, the researcher experienced problems during data collection as some respondents proved difficult. However they were convinced and persuaded to complete the questionnaire which must of them did on other to ensure that the study is a success.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected organization made it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Time: Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future. Time is a component quantity of various measurements used to sequence events, to compare the duration of events or the intervals between them, and to quantify
Time Management: Time management is the process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity
Employee Performance: Employee productivity (sometimes referred to as workforce productivity) is an assessment of the efficiency of a worker or group of workers. Productivity may be evaluated in terms of the output of an employee in a specific period of time.
Organization: An organization is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.