This study examined the influence of Fanta animation advertisement on children’s consumption pattern in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State.
Descriptive survey was adopted for the study and questions were answered descriptively using frequency counts and simple percentage. 400 questionnaires were administered among the children of the two schools in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State.
The findings showed that cchildren’s watching Fanta animation advertisement in the television stirred up the interest of the respondents on the product. Short ads in fanta advertisement always caught the attention of the children. The children are always happy when they see animations of Fanta advertisement on television. Children always tell their parents to buy Fanta mostly at home because of the animation advertisements. Cartoon, celebrity, beautiful faces used in animation iinfluence the buying behavior of the children towards Fanta.
The study concluded that Fanta animation advertisement plays vital role on children’s consumption pattern through using celebrity. The study recommended; There is need for the company to include children’s favorite celebrity, cartons and beautiful faces in the Fanta animation advertisement; There should be awareness or enlightenment campaign on the benefits of Fanta to the children in the animation advertisement.
Keyword: Advertisement, Animation, Animation Advertisement, Children, Awareness level, Knowledge Level, Purchase.
Words Count: 117
1.1 Background to the Study
Advertisements play an important role in customers’ choice of goods or services, especially with children as consumers. Advertisement is one of the main instruments used by businesses to communicative and persuasive effect. It is efficient when target audiences received, processes and accepted the advertising message. Perception is this element for human beings that helps them exist in reality and has significant role of processing information received by sensory system. The process of perception has been associated with the process of the evaluation of the advertising messages (Sibińska & Łódzk, 2013).
Children attraction towards television increases with age. Children react to advertisement in different manners. It can be influenced by many factors, such as groups, intervention of parents, media literacy and experiences. Such determinants play a key role in understanding television advertisement and process its content. In the cognitive development children are passing through the stages helping them to distinguish advertising from program content, recalling and awareness of advertising, recognizing and understanding persuasive intent of advertising, liking and skepticism or cognitive defense to advertising (Antonides, Van Raaij & Zachowanie, 2003).
Considering the fact that children make one of the fastest growing market segments of end user, marketers have always been keen on targeting children as consumers (Wilson & Wood, 2004). They are after all not only an interesting primary market but also request products to their parents and can form an important future market (Valkenburg & Cantor, 2001; Preston, 2004). For that reason, children are targeted by a massive amount of media on a daily basis, where they can be exposed to 25 child-targeted commercials per hour on commercial television (Valkenburg & Cantor, 2000).
To stimulate advertising effectiveness, marketers use a wide range of advertising techniques; one of which is the incorporation of attractive animations in their campaigns. At the age of 10 - 13 years old, two important cognitive tools relevant for the effect of attractive animation in advertisement on children are only developing. First, children have not yet developed the necessary skills to act as fully informed consumers, possibly enhancing the effectiveness of the use of attractive models in advisement. Second, children of that age are also not yet using social comparisons to re-evaluate their own attractiveness. This makes attractive models like animation in ads perhaps less harmful than they are for adults and older children (Van de Sompel & Vermeir, 2016).
Marketers and advertising agencies try to make their ads more appealing, attractive and distinctive. One of the techniques used to solve this requirement is the use of animation in the advertisements. Viewers of any age, whether children, teenagers or adults go crazy for animated characters. Animation gives free expression to imagination. It carries up spectator in an imaginary world dreamed by the artists (Goel & Upadhyay, 2017).
The adoption of animation in advertising is often disguised as a form of entertainment, and it can therefore often be hard to identify as promotional contents. The animation is an advertising medium that frequently makes use of brand incentives (such Carton and Logo) to influence children to favor the products being promoted. The animations capacity to induce high levels of interest and involvement by having consumers actively seek out content and interact with it distinguishes it from a passive medium (Moore, 2006). The entertainment format, as well as the use of interactivity, lays the foundation for advertising efficiency and success (Taylor, 2009). This is also why product placement in computer games using animation contents has been seen as an effective tool for fostering brand recall and positive attitudes toward brands (Mackay, Ewing, Newton, & Windisch, 2009).
Parents in believe that there is change in the pattern and behavior of children when they watch television (Windisch, 2016). Parents have shown many concerns about effects of television advertising on their children, thereby showing both positive and negative views about television advertising. Product advertisements especially using animation place an emphasis on possessions and on aspiration to a certain lifestyle. The underlying concerns about animation advertising is whether it exploits children, and this exploitation is sometimes described in emotive terms with reference to Seducers (the marketers) and innocents (the children, particularly young children). Thus, this study intends to investigates influence of Fanta animation advertisement on children’s consumption pattern in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the prominent issues for discussion and research today centers on the perceived harm that television advertising on children. The question of how children cope with persuasive messages is of concern to many parents when their offspring are first exposed to television advertising aimed at children. Typical criticisms are that advertising makes false claims, promotes materialism and other undesirable values as well as exploiting vulnerable and disadvantaged children (Rose, Bush & Kahle, 1998). As well as viewing advertising in the traditional media, children are exposed to advertising when they visit commercial websites which may influence children negatively (Bulmer, 2005).
The main charges against children targeted adverts are that they cause unnecessary hedonism in children (Clay, 2000), increase pressure on parents (Gbadamosi, Hinson, & Tukamushaba, 2012) and lead to the consumption of junk foods that result in obesity in children (Boyland, Harrold, Kirkham, & Halford, 2011; Hota, Caceres, & Cousin, 2010; Andreyeva, Kelly & Harris, 2011; Kelly, Chapman, King & Hebden, 2011). Counter views exist that child advertising is a useful tool for the economic and consumption socialization of children (Bush, Smith & Martin 2009; Linebarger & Piotrowski, 2008). Others point to the unique and lucrative market niche that children present to marketers (Valkenburg, 2004). A finer argument in favor of child advertising holds that advertisers and marketers are parents themselves and, therefore, play it fair and safe. Opposition to this view includes Clay (2000) who holds fellow psychologists responsible for putting their professional knowledge at the disposal of marketing, the outcome of which harms the child.
A large proportion of the consumer research literature is based on studies of adults. This is due in part to the practical and ethical problems of studying children. Another explanation is that sophisticated cognitive processes, which are not fully developed in children, underpin many consumption behaviours. Children and adolescents are now perceived as having significant spending power and influence in family purchase decisions. Therefore, this study seeks to examine children perception of animation in Fanta advertisement.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine influence of Fanta animation advertisement on children’s consumption pattern in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State. However, the specific objectives:
- Investigate children’s awareness level of animation in Fanta advertisement.
- Find out the children’s knowledge level of animation used in Fanta advertisement.
- Determine the attitude of children’s towards animation in Fanta advertisement
- Ascertain the influence of fanta animation advertisement on children’s purchase of Fanta.
- Find out the most important element of fanta animation advertisement that influences children's purchase.
1.4 Research Questions
The questions for the study are as follow:
- What are children’s awareness level of animations in Fanta advertisement?
- What are the children’s knowledge level of animation used in Fanta advertisement.
- What is the attitude of children’s towards animation in Fanta advertisement?
- What is the influence of Fanta animation advertisement on children’s purchase decision?
- What isnthe most important element of fanta animation advertisement that infouences children's purchase?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Advertisement plays important role in market process toady. However, there are significant differences between the levels of being influenced of advertisements by adults and children. Naturally adults have a much more advantageous position in understanding the advertisement purpose or that the animation or image is possess real content or piece of fiction. This study will this be significance to parents and other shareholders in the country.
The research will to contribute towards a better understanding of how children view animation advertising and the wider media world. Thus, the study will enable parents to know the perception and attitude of their children towards animation in Fanta advertisement. Also, the study will inform parents on how Fanta animation advertisement will influence purchasing decision of their children.
Furthermore, the research will go a considerable way towards not only learning about the perspective of children’s about animations but also informing future policy making in this area. This will enable policy maker to formulate policy that will protect against wrong animation advertisement. Finally, the study will add value to body of literature and serves as useful materials for future studies.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study seeks investigate influence of Fanta animation advertisement on children’s consumption pattern in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State. It is an attempt to answer the research question whether Fanta animation advertisement influences the children’s consumption pattern in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State. The study will be conducted in two schools in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State (Breed primary school, shagamu Ogun, State, and Regal primary school). It will be conducted among the primary 4 to 6 pupils of Breed primary school, shagamu Ogun, State, and Regal primary school.
The study will be conducted within 6 months, to enable the research have a précised and sincere outcome
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Advertisements: Advertisement in this context is defined as the use of animation such as cartoons, to persuade and impact on the purchase pattern of children.
Animation: This is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. It is the motion in which pictures are moving images, using cartoons of different colours in advertising Fanta product.
Animation advertisement: This is a process of marketing moving images.
Children: These are human beings who are between the stages of birth and puberty or between the developmental period of infancy and puberty