The study examined newspaper coverage and awareness of endo metriosis among female employees of Babcock University.
The study employed the survey research design. A well-constructed questionnaire, which was adjudged valid and reliable, was used for collection of data from the respondents. The data obtained through the administration of the questionnaires was analyzed using the Pearson correlation analysis.
The findings revealed that there is positive and significant relationship between there is a significant relationship between age and awareness of endometriosis (r=0.772; p<0.05).
The study hereby concluded that newspapers coverage has significant effect on awareness of endometriosis among female employees of Babcock University. The study further recommends that; Nigeria universities should always note down the frequency of contents on endometriosis different newspapers and keep in the library if possible. Nigeria universities and newspaper firms should have a format of presentation of contents on endometriosis. Nigeria universities and newspaper firms should have placement of contents on endometriosis for important calling purpose. Nigeria universities should always create awareness of endometriosis among female employees. Nigeria newspaper firms should publish more of endometriosis among female.
1.1 Background to the study
Good health and well-being among individuals seem to have been established as an important aspect of development. However, Women experience many unique health issues related to reproduction and sexuality and these are responsible for a third of all health problems experienced by women during their reproductive years (aged 15–44) (World Health Organization WHO, 2016). It may affect more than 11% of American women between age 15 and 44. While diseases continue to be the push for development, endometriosis is one that seems to be silently crawling into the society. Endometriosis is especially common among women in their 30s and 40s and may make it harder to get pregnant. Several different treatment options can help manage the symptoms and improve the chances of getting pregnant (WHO, 2016).
“Endometriosis is a painful disorder in which the tissue similar to the tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus, which is called the endometrium, grows outside your uterus” (Mayo Clinic, 2019, para.1). The illness can be found in women of all ethnic, race and social groups. Meaning everyone is susceptible to endometriosis. At the moment, no cure has been found for this non-communicable disease, but there are treatments.
While the prevalence of several diseases continue to hinder the push for development, endometriosis is one that seems to be silently crawling into the society. Endometriosis is a progressive disease, which in many patients (females) deteriorates overtime; due to this, timely diagnosis and treatment are of major importance. The signs and symptoms can be highly variable. Classic symptoms of endometriosis include; dysmenorrhea (Menstrual cramps), pain such as cyclic pelvic pain, infertility and dyspareunia (Painful intercourse).
A wide variety of symptoms, however, may be presented, with many of them highly prevalent among young women and girls, non-specific and overlapping with other conditions, thereby impeding with the level of awareness. This leads to difficulties in identifying those at risk for endometriosis, resulting in many women receiving either delayed or suboptimal care (Youngster et al., 2013). A diagnostic delay of up to 10.7 years has been reported, and reflects both a delay in the patient attending primary care due to poor awareness and a delay by the GP in reaching a diagnosis also due to the awareness level (Ballard et al., 2006; Hudelistet al., 2012)
The economic impact of endometriosis is high and similar to other chronic diseases such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis (Simoens et al, 2012). A research across 10 countries estimated that the average annual cost of endometriosis was €9579 per woman consisting of €3113 for health care costs and €6298 for productivity losses (Simoens et al, 2012). Many patients’ quality of life is affected by pain, the emotional impact of sub-fertility, anger about disease recurrence, and uncertainty about the future regarding repeated operations or long-term medical therapy (Denny, 2004). A recent study conducted by Nnoaham et al. (2011) identified impaired health related quality of life and work productivity across countries and ethnicities, yet women continue to experience delay in diagnosis. From the patients’ view, endometriosis can be a nightmare of misinformation, myths, taboos, lack of diagnosis, and problematic hit-and-miss treatments overlaid by a painful, chronic, stubborn disease. It impact negatively on fertility, sexuality, ability to work, play, and personal relationships (Turnbull, 2009).
While the true prevalence of endometriosis is difficult to quantify, it is estimated that the disease affects approximately 1 in 10 reproductive aged women in the United States (Pugsley and Ballard, 2017). The prevalence of endometriosis was 62% among girls with significant dysmenorrheal (Janssen et al, 2013).
According to Trehan (2018), awareness of endometriosis can often be lacking amongst both patients and health-care practitioners. This can lead to patients suffering for years before a diagnosis.
Despite the significant impact of endometriosis on both individual patients as well as the health care system, epidemiologic studies reveal concerning trends regarding the current state of diagnosis and access to treatment. Studies in the United States and other industrialized nations have found that a majority of women with endometriosis have been serially evaluated by multiple providers, have had their symptoms dismissed or trivialized by health care professionals, and ultimately experience a significant delay between the onset of symptoms of endometriosis and its definitive diagnosis (Nnoaham et al., 2015). In Nigeria, recent efforts by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to collaborate with global movements that seek to improve awareness of endometriosis on a designated World Endometriosis Day represents a significant paradigm shift in Nigeria’s approach to this debilitating disease (Otolorin et al, 2016). The researcher is of the supposition that awareness of endometriosis among women and young girls (Otolorin et al, 2016).
Newspapers have consistently remained useful resources in society since their emergence in the 17th century (Tom, 2012). As a medium of mass communication, newspapers serve as tools for shaping thoughts, and means of controlling economic and political powers (Copeland, 2003). Newspapers also provide an essential forum for public discussion and debates, thereby providing guidance for society (Copeland, 2013). Newspapers are regarded as courtrooms, where judgements are passed against societal ills through editorials. The information, education and entertainment roles of newspapers further make them agents of socialisation (Stephens, 2018). The print media has been since before the time Nigerian independence been a powerful tool for swaying the opinion of general populace, it has been responsible for providing health information to the general masses through some specially dedicated columns that are written by seasoned medical doctors. The newspapers can be judged to play a large role in the decision making process of the readers, by providing exposure to certain advertisements, articles, features and in certain cases describing the sign and symptoms of health issues and what to do about it. Newspapers socialise members of the public by inculcating the values and norms of society in them (Stephens, 2018). In fulfilling these basic functions in society, newspapers, like other channels of mass communication, have always devoted attention to the coverage of various aspects of human endeavours. These include, but not limited to, politics, education, sports, business and economy, religion, arts and culture, entertainment and health.
In Nigeria, the mass media have been identified as sources of information and as providers of contents about health (Tom, 2012; Copeland, 2003; Stephens, 2018). Therefore, as a pressing issue and with the agenda setting role of the newspaper, it has become germane to understand the coverage of endometriosis in the Nigerian newspapers. This study, therefore, investigates newspaper coverage and awareness of endometriosis among female employees in Babcock University.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The improvement of women’s health and well-being is one of the priorities of the sustainable development goals. Therefore, the need to take seriously some health challenges that are peculiar to women cannot be overstated. Women with endometriosis appear to be more susceptible to other autoimmune diseases predominantly multiple sclerosis. The consequences of endometriosis are far reaching (Turnbull, 2009). It includes pelvic pain that may worsen during menstruation, painful intercourse, painful bowel movements or urination and infertility (Turnbull, 2009). It is very important to speed up diagnosis of this disease, which takes an average of eight years to be diagnosed across the western world, and can take up to 10 years or more to diagnose in Nigeria (Okaro et al, 2016). Early diagnosis could also help reduce the suffering of women by investigating possible endometriosis when girls or women present with distressing period pain or pelvic pain. It is estimated one in ten women live with the condition, which untreated can develop into daily chronic pain and lead to infertility (Okaro et al, 2016).
Low awareness of endometriosis and poor access to diagnostic & therapeutic facilities has been reported in Nigeria (Okaro et al, 2016). A higher prevalence of endometriosis has been reported among affluent women. However, this might be owing to early and better diagnosis, possibly because they recognize pelvic pain or infertility as an important health problem and have access to excellent diagnostic and therapeutic facilities. Lack of awareness of endometriosis as a potentially important health problem among women and poor access to state-of-the art diagnostic and therapeutic facilities may contribute to the meager epidemiological data on endometriosis in Nigerian women. Considering the visible role of newspaper in health education such in the case of diseases like HIV, Sickle Cell Anaemia. The researcher is of the supposition that study into the newspaper coverage and awareness of endometriosis among female employee of Babcock University is a necessity.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The aim of this research is to examine the newspaper coverage and awareness of endometriosis among female employee of Babcock University. The specific objectives are to:
- examine the frequency of contents on endometriosis in selected Nigerian newspapers.
- identify the format of presentation of contents on endometriosis in selected Nigerian newspapers.
- determine the placement of contents on endometriosis in selected Nigerian newspapers.
- assess the level of awareness of endometriosis among female employees in Babcock University.
1.4 Research questions
- What is the frequency of contents on endometriosis in selected Nigerian newspapers?
- What is the format of presentation of contents on endometriosis in selected Nigerian newspapers?
- What is the level of placement given to contents on endometriosis in selected Nigerian newspapers?
- To what extent are female employees of Babcock University aware of endometriosis?
1.5 Research Hypothesis.
H1 There is a significant relationship between age and awareness of endometriosis among female employees in Babcock University.
H2 There is a significant relationship between educational status and awareness of endometriosis among female employees in Babcock University.
1.6 Significance of the study
In view of the prevalence of endometriosis, especially in women and young girls this study would be of benefit to several stakeholders.
This study would not only be of importance to female employees of Babcock University, it will also serve as a green light to the public at large in terms of educating them on the disease. It will also assist them in understanding endometriosis and all it entails.
The findings from this study will be useful to the government, policy makers, and stakeholders in the mass media sectors, management of newspaper companies and the general public on the newspaper coverage and awareness of endometriosis among female employees of Babcock University and women in Nigeria as a whole.
This research will also be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the newspaper coverage and awareness of endometriosis among women and young girls in Nigeria the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. Future researchers will benefit from this study by using it and it will educate them more on endometriosis, especially those in the sciences.
It will also be a contribution to the body of existing knowledge in the area of awareness of endometriosis among women both in Nigeria and the world. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and future health communication producers can use the findings of this study in their formative research stage to help design interventions for endometriosis.
1.7 Scope of the study
The study will cover the relationship between newspaper coverage and awareness of endometriosis among women in Nigeria. It will also cover issues spanning 2017 to 2019.
This study will focus on the newspaper coverage and awareness of endometriosis among female employees in Babcock University. The study will analyse selected national newspapers in Nigeria for the year of 2019. The rationale for selecting the newspapers is their national circulation in Nigeria. The study will also investigate the awareness of female employees of Babcock University on endometriosis. This study will be conducted from December 2019 – April 2020.
1.8 Operational definitions of terms
NEWSPAPER COVERAGE: This specifically refers to the reporting of endometriosis in selected Nigerian newspapers.
AWARENESS: The level of exposure, attention and retention to endometriosis among female employees of Babcock University.
PLACEMENT: The page of the newspaper where the contents on endometriosis is. This will be measured in order to establish the prominence given to the issue.