The study examined effect of nutrition education on dietary habit and body composition of in school adolescent.
The study employed the survey design. A well-constructed questionnaire, which was adjudged valid and reliable, was used for collection of data from the respondents. The data obtained from the administration of the questionnaires was analyzed using the descriptive statistics techniques such as tables, percentage, frequency and mean. The Pearson Correlation Analysis was employed to empirically ascertain the degree of relationship between nutrition education and dietary habit and body composition.
The findings revealed that; there is positive and significant relationship between 4 weeks introductory nutrition education and dietary habit; Apositive and significant relationship exists between 4 weeks introductory nutrition education and body composition; A positive and significant relationship exists between 4 weeks introductory nutrition education and physical health
The study concluded that nutrition education on dietary habit has significant effect on body composition of in school adolescent. The study further recommends that; Students should try to have 4 weeks introductory nutrition and dietary habit. The nutrional department should teach students about 4 weeks introductory nutrition education and dietary habit. Students should try to understand more about on body composition. The nutrional department should teach students about 4 weeks introductory nutrition education and body composition. Students should make there physical health important. The nutrional department should teach students about 4 weeks introductory nutrition education and physical health.
1.1 Background to the Study
Often times, dietary habit, eating properly and keeping a balanced diet contribute to a good body composition which makes an individual to be healthy physically (Bevan et al., 2011). However, when an individual do not eat properly and keep a balanced diet, its physical health gets worse, resistance to diseases reduce, attention to other activity decreases, there is slow down movements from one place to another, required productivity is not given and body composition will not undergo proper physiological functions (Constante & Lock, 2019). Spence et al., (2013) showed that eating properly and keeping a balanced diet increases efficiency and productivity of an individual, minimize diseases and occupational diseases, improve physical health and body composition as well as increase in resistance to diseases.
Dietary habit plays significant function in an individual food preference which avoids unhealthy weight management and binge eating practices. A lot of people in developing countries in Africa have found to be engaged in dietary habits and behaviors, which is quite often present unhealthy food choices (Bhutta et al., 2013). Breakfast eaters are normally expected to be less obese than breakfast skippers. (Buhl, 2010) stated that fruit and vegetable consumption is a vital part of a nutritious diet and is connected through various aﬃrmative health eﬀects. Trace elements including iron, zinc, and folate are indispensable for high growth rates of adolescents. The squeal of micronutrient insuﬃciencies, for instance vitamin A, folate, Fe, Zn and I, are thoughtful and result in overall poor health, blindness, growth retardation, mental disabilities, learning disabilities, low work ability and premature death among adolescents (Degarege, Degarege & Animut, 2015).
The prevalence of obesity and overweight is quite high in Nigeria especially among youths (Eze et al., 2017). According to a 2018 World Health Organization report, millions of Nigeria population is overweight and are obese. Changing eating habits can be responsible for the rapid increase in these conditions, particularly among the young population. Poor food preferences may be attributed to poor cooking skills, low income, and little time availability to engage in physically active recreation, and so forth. Such lifestyle changes lead to weight gain, an increase in body fat composition and can affect physical health (Adesina et al., 2012).
Generally, adequate nutrition education knowledge about healthy food choices and food safety can be predisposing factors for improving eating habits and adopting a good healthy diet, motivations required for an individual to adopt healthy eating habit is essential (Bronner, Welch & Serpa, 2019). Adequate nutrient intake during adolescence is very important for many reasons because health of individual is dependent on normal dietary intakes and provision of foods that contain adequate energy and nutrients was essential for physical, social and cognitive growth and development (Nicholas et al., 2019). Some factors influencing eating behaviours need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions tailored to individuals to improve their healthy eating. Hence, the determinants such as practice, inclination, self-efficacy, barriers to change and the meaning of “healthy” and “unhealthy” diet and food must be considered (Srinivasan & Shankar, 2016).
A 4 weeks introductory nutrition education usually combine arts and science, in contributing to nutritional information and also helps people to maintain their good health, good sanitary practices, introduction of better food hygiene, more efficient use of food resources etc (You, Sung & Chang, 2019). Nutrition education can be an effective gauge to improve healthy dietary habits and food choices. Sound nutrition can play a role in the prevention of several chronic diseases, including binge eating, cardiac abnormality, and certain types of oncological disorders. Amorim (2010) concluded that healthy eating behaviour should be established to prevent diet-related chronic diseases. It is the health care professional’s responsibility to help the adolescence to gain knowledge about food choices and food safety and motivate them to choose healthy eating habits.
Education on introductory nutrition can to help to maintain good nutrition which is essential for the growth and development that occurs especially during the first 4 weeks of introductory nutrition (Ajala, 2016). For instance, when developing infants are fed the appropriate types and amounts of foods, their health is promoted. Oladepo (2012) stated that a caregiver should be educated on positive and supportive feeding attitudes so as to help the infants develop healthy attitudes toward foods, themselves, and others. However, many physiological changes occur that allow one to consume foods of varying composition and texture. For proper growth and development, an adequate amount of essential nutrients must be obtained by consuming appropriate quantities and types of foods (Asinobi & Oninawo, 2017).
Poor diets and malnutrition has devastating effects on health, performance, body composition and ability to learn, productivity, earning potential and physical health. In contrast, good dietary habit can promote optimal growth and development, better learning and overall physical health and well-being. Introductory nutritional education for the first 4 week of a child is critical to achieve a positive impact on child nutrition and development (Agbakwuru et al., 2016). Unhealthy diets and physical inactivity are major modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and obesity, and effective health interventions are urgently required to support behavioural changes in dietary and physical activity patterns. Ngwa (2015) suggested that the propensity to develop non-communicable diseases and obesity may be markedly influenced during fetal development and infancy, and these factors may in part explain the observed correlation between health inequalities and non-communicable diseases. The importance of good nutrition in the early development of children has been recognized for many decades. It is on this premises that this research is analyzing the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on dietary habit, body composition and physical health.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problems of under nutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases increasingly exist side by side across the world. There are more than 900 million people who are undernourished and approximately 170 million under-weight children. Those who do not get enough energy or key nutrients cannot sustain healthy, active lives. The result is poor physical and mental development, devastating illness and death, as well as incalculable loss of human potential and social and economic development. At the same time, hundreds of millions suffer from chronic diseases caused by excessive or unbalanced diets and many developing nations are now dealing with severe health issues at both ends of the nutritional spectrum. Countries still struggling to feed their people face the costs of preventing obesity and treating diet-related non-communicable illness.
However, poor dietary habit choices and practices have been shown to have impact on body composition and physical health; the need for introductory nutrition education becomes clear. The main nutritional problems affecting majority include under-nutrition in terms of stunting and wasting. Others are deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron and vitamin obesity and other specific nutrient deficiencies (Najat & Alice, 2018). It is important that health educators look into nutrition education and its impact on the dietary habit, body composition and physical health. Several studies have been conducted that show how nutrition education impacts the general dietary habits. It is worthy of note that no research has been conducted on the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on dietary habit, body composition and physical health both locally and internationally.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to analyze the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on dietary habit, body composition and physical health.
The specific objectives are:
1. To examine the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on dietary habit.
2. To find out the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on body composition.
3. To determine the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on physical health.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on dietary habit?
2. What is the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on body composition?
3. What is the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on physical health?
HO1: The effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education does not significantly affect dietary habit.
HO2: The effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education does not significantly affect body composition.
HO3: The effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education does not significantly affect physical health.
1.6 Significance of the Study
- The outcome of this study will enlighten government, policy makers, stakeholders and the general public on the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on dietary habit, body composition and physical health.
- The findings from this study will constitute a basis for future research and also contribute to the body of knowledge since it will be used as empirical literature.
- Outcome of this study will also be a guide for policy formulation both at national and state level.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study will cover the effect of a 4 weeks introductory nutrition education on dietary habit, body composition and physical health. It will also cover issues spanning 2015 to 2019.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Effect: is a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Week: is a period of seven days.
Introductory: is used to introduce; preliminary; beginning:
Nutrition: Are the substances that you take into your body as food and the way that they influence your health.
Education: is the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
Nutrition education: can be defined as any set of learning experiences designed to facilitate the voluntary adoption of eating and other nutrition-related behaviors conducive to health and well-being.
Dietary habit: refers to the habitual decisions an individual or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat or food choices preferred by persons in their daily life.
Body composition: describes what the body is made up of, which is predominantly body fat, lean muscle mass, bones and water.
Physical health: is critical for overall well-being and is the most visible of the various dimensions of health, which also include social, intellectual, emotional, spiritual and environmental health.