ASSESSING PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES OF ORGANIZATIONS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY)
The process of management involves a continuous assessment of the behavior and performance of staff. One way to review the performance and potential of is through a system of performance appraisal. It is important that members of the organization know exactly what is expected of them and the yardsticks by which their performance and results will be measured.
To appraise is to judge the worth, quality or condition of something or to find the value. Therefore, to appraise performance is to assess and determine the quality of contribution and possible worth of potentials pigors and myers (1985).
Donnely defined performance appraisals as the “formal evaluation of an individual’s job performance
It has been established that a manager’s job is to achieved results through people i.e. manager motivates his men to work in order to be able to achiever the predetermined results.
The individual opinion of himself and how he is performing may not always be right, yet the employee wants to know how his performing on the job from his manager, hence the need for performance is based on agreed targeted.
More so, from the performance appraisal process, it will definitely emerge the strengths and weaknesses of the employee and on this basis, appropriate remedial action such as training can be undertaken. Also, the employees performance on the job will be systematically analyzed and determine how such employee should be rewarded either in terms of money or promotion.
Laurie (1989), defined performance appraisals as the “improvement of the performance of individual leading to the improvement in the performance of organization as a whole”.
According to Oladosu. He defined performance appraisals to be “an assessment and determination of the quality of contributions and the possible worth of potentials”
Debra (1998) defined performance appraisals as the “evaluation of a person’s performance”. From the above definitions, performance appraisals includes feed back to the individual and determination whether and how the performance can be improved.
According to Lathan (1998) and Wesley, performance appraisal is “any personnel decision that affects the status of employees regarding their retention, termination, promotion, demotion, transfer, salary increment or decrease or admission into training programs.
Franch (2004) on the other hands, define performance appraisals “as the way or methods used for the continuous evaluation of the contribution of individual and group’s within the organization”. To him (French), such techniques evaluations are made for varieties of purposes which may include selection, correction, training, pay increases, promotion, discipline and transfers.
Performance appraisal technique system began as a simple method of incoming justification.
It was used to decide whether or not the salary or wages of an individual employee was justified.
The process was firmly linked to material outcomes. If an employee’s performance was found to be less than ideal, a cut-in pay would follow on the other hand, if their performance was better. Than the supervisor expected a pay rise in order.
2.2. PROVIDING A CRITERIA FOR APPRISAL TECHNIQUE
An appraisal technique exercise can be made more effective by providing a standard in which employee’s productivity for a period can be based or compared with.
Hence, we see a person being compared to another person or the technique or ranking approach to employee’s rating.
It can be made simple objective if the organization put down in writing some kind of performance standard that employee’s are supposed to accomplish. By this approach, both the subordinate and supervisor have a definite ideal agreement on what is the expected performance target. This, we find that management find jobs description as a good starting point. At top position, is easier if both the individual and his boss jointly develop his standard. The lower jobs where things are streamlined in terms of duties, the supervisor can with a relative ease are in apposition to inform his subordinates about the quality and even quality of work expected of them. This can includes punctuality at work as well as regularity in attendance of job acknowledge
REASON AND IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL.
From the above statement, one can outline two key focuses on the type of appraisals techniques as either aimed at evaluating or developing the employee. Broadly speaking, the following are considered as the importance
a. It provides information upon which promotion and salary decision can be made.
- It gives both managers and subordinates opportunity to review their work related behaviors.
- To motivate employees by providing feedback on how workers are doing.
- It improves overall productivity of the organization.
- It reduces loss of organization image by reducing ability for potential legal actions relations related to non competence and discrimination or personal action.
- It improves organizational result and creates more motivated employees.
- It improves organizational development by identifying people with promotion potentials and development needs. It also established a researched reference base for personnel decision.