The study examines school facilities and learner’s academic performance in some selected public and private primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta StateSchool system is an aspect of education that seek to cover the provision of formal learning for pupils and students in any society. The school system follows a standard process of learning which is most recognized as school curriculum. The population of the study comprises headmasters, and teachers from six (6) primary schools of Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta State. The six (6) primary schools comprises of three (3) public and three (3) private primary schools namely: Public Primary Schools, Ekrejeta Primary School, Abraka, Erho Primary School, Abraka and Iwen Primary School, Eku. Private primary schools namely: Sure Foundation School, Abraka, Kings and Queens School, Abraka and Great Beginners School, Abraka. Using a stratified random sampling, out of 10 primary schools, 6 primary schools were chosen and the choice was based on the status of the school (government funded or not), therefore three schools were government funded (public schools or private subsidized schools) and three were private.. Thus, the total sample of all respondents was sixty-six (66) teaching personnel (both teachers and headmasters) were also selected to be part of the sample.The study established that school facilities have great impact on academic performance of pupils in schools; it was also established that there are different types of school facilities such as health, sports and this result to academic performance of the pupils who may not skip classes and here are environmental habits in these schools such as provision of dust bin, toilet facilities and toilet materials insect ides and the rest.From the above findings, the study do hereby make the following recommendations the school authorities, proprietors and government should continue to place priority to the establishment or installation of school facilities in the schools so as to create more awareness to the impact on the academic performance of pupils; schools authorities and other stakeholders should discover and maintain existing school facilities so that pupils knowledge and learning will be improved and hey should adequate provision of standard first aid box and materials so that pupils who fall sick or experiencing fatique can quick take first medication for them to bounce back to well-being for learning and studying.
1.1 Background of the Study
School system is an aspect of education that seek to cover the provision of formal learning for pupils and students in any society. The school system follows a standard process of learning which is most recognized as school curriculum. According to Sabitu, Babatunde and Oluwole (2012), schools are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. It is also more important that the teachers and learners are properly accommodated to facilities the learning and learning that go on there.
Education that is within the scope of school system because necessary because, it enable learner to get full dose of learning activities. Uko (2015) avers that education seek to develop the minds and character of future citizen, their abilities, skills and potential, in order them equip them for contemporary society, school facilities have to be supplied in adequate quantities, properly and effectively managed, controlled and supervised.
It is now clear that school facilities elp learners to gain the needed knowledge in school environment. Uko and Ayuk (2014), explained that in an educational institutions, school facilities constitute essential inputs, which create favourable learning environment, facilitate interaction and enhance achievement of educational objectives. In essence, the school curriculum would not be meaningful and functional if required facilities are not provided in adequate quality and quantity at appropriate times through the head teacher’s administrative functions.
School facilities have wide scope which includes physical structures and physical instrument or equipments. As a standard in approved private school in Delta State, a private primary school must have adequate physical structure and other facilities within the school compound. Onuorah (2014) posit that school facilities are made up of the school and all the physical structure on it. It refers to the school building, the play grounds, the equipment and other materials resources provided in the school for effective teaching and learning operations. Ani (2017), define school facilities as all fixed, mobile structure and materials in the school such as the classroom buildings, laboratory equipment, the furniture, the chalkboard, white board, audio and visual aids. School facilities mean all facilities and equipment within the school, which are used by the members of the school community, (Abraham, 2013).
The essence of school facilities in primary school is to enhance academic performance of the pupils. Also, the facilities in the school are most used by teachers and pupils, but they are regarded as supportive educational equipments. Either direct or indirect impact on academic performance, school facilities must add learning value, the value precede the academic performance. Academic performance is the outcome of long or short time period of learning which is determine by either internal or external examination.
School facilities contribute to academic performance of pupils in primary schools. Adesima and Ogundsanji (2014) noted that for effective teaching and learning in primary school, physical facilities and educational goal should be viewed as being closely interwoven and interpedently. The school facilities have tremendous impact on academic performance of primary school pupils. There is need for well-planned and organized school facilities. A conducive school facilities is important to the quality of education delivery to the pupils. The school facilities must be free from threats, hostility and frustration.
There are two ownership system of primary education in Nigeria. There are private school and public school. Private schools are school owned by private individuals and educationist. These schools are established by proprietor or proprietress. Public primary schools are established by the government. Government owned primary schools are managed by the government while private primary schools are managed by business educationist. Public and private primary schools are regulated by the educational board which gives specific curriculum standard for learning.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Education is considered the most effective means of bringing about total change that would ensure accelerated human development. Education is possible within a well established environment. Educational environment is the school. In the schoolare different facilities. There are different opinion about the relationship between school facilities and academic performance of primary school pupils. According to Audu, Umar and Idris (2013), one of the issues of great controversy among educators in different institutions of learning today is the issue of poor state of school facilities. A school of thought argues that the problem is that of inadequate facilities required for effective teaching and learning of pupils.
It has also been noticed that mass failure of pupils in both internal and external examination is as a result of poor school facilities. According to Sabitu, Babatunde and Oluwole (2012), causes of the poor academic performance could include ownership of the school and inadequate facilities. Facilities are of everything used directly or indirectly for the benefit of education of pupils.
It is common these days to see some classroom in public primary school full of potholes on the floor, having open roof, lacking learning facilities. Such of these issues is the most recent picture of OkotieEboh primary school in a deplorable position which went viral on social media because of one Success Adegbor who was forced out of school because of examination fee.
In view of the importance of school facilities in academic performance of primary school pupils that this study seeks to established the relationship between school facilities and academic performance of pupils in public and private schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of school facilities and learner’s academic performances in private and public primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, the study sought to:
- To find out the impact of sport facilities on student’s academic performance inpublic and private primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
- To ascertain the contributions of recreational facilities on student’s academic performances in public and private primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
- To established the effect of school library on student’s academic performance in public and private primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area.
- To find out the impact of Information Communication Technology (ICTs) on academic performance in public and private primary school in Ethiope East Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
The study provided answers to the following Questions
- What is the impact of sport facilities on student’s academic performance in public and private primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
- What are the contributions of recreational facilities on student’s academic performances in public and private primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
- What is the effect of school library on student’s academic performance in public and private primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
- What is the impact of Information Communication Technology (ICTs) on academic performance in public and private primary school in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of this research, the following hypotheses were formulated to test at 0.05 level of significance.
- There is significance difference in provision of school facilities between public and private secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area.
- There is no significance difference relationship between school facilities and academic performance in public and private primary school in Ethiope East Local Government Area.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Geographically, the study was carried out in Ethiope East, one of the Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. In content terms, the study is narrowed to public and private primary school to compared their academic performance and this enable the researcher minimize the cost of covering a large area as an individual researcher; it also established the relationship between school facilities and pupils academic performance which enable the researcher conduct a meaningful study within the short possible time as permitted for this programme of study.
1.7 Significance of the Study
It is believed that the life wire of any educational system is the extent of availability of school facilities (in terms of quality and quantity) which occupies a crucial place in the realization of its goals. However, the result of the findings in this research work shall assist Nigerian primary school managers, the findings of the study will help them establish how to enhance quality in their education,education planners to help them find out how school resources play an important role in the teaching/learning process and hence to pupils' performance; every stakeholder (policy makers, school administrators, teachers, government and the students) in playing a sensitive role aimed at improving the standard of education through the provision of a conducive learning environment.
First, the government of Nigeria and other policy makers will be well equipped with reliable and factual information which serves as an input for effective law making on issues relating to allocation of funds, timely released period and the legal framework guiding its activities. Also, the information gotten will reveal the inequality in education as this inequality is not only closed by setting central exams but also by considering other factors. Secondly, it will provide an extensive knowledge of school facilities to the school administrators to initiate, sustain and put to use. It will afford other researchers to look into grey areas not covered in the present study and seek ways of improving over it.
Furthermore, teachers as major stakeholders in the school system, who play an intermediate role, seek to work harmoniously with the school in encouraging the students to use the facilities. This could be to solve assignments, observe practical knowledge and in the acquisition of essential skills. It will also place a great burden on the government to provide adequate funding to the school system, equipped the inspectorate unit to carry out its functions effectively. Notwithstanding, to parents and/or guardians, the study findings will guide them in identifying reason why they should seek quality education instead of any other motive to enroll their children in such and such primary schools;
1.8 Limitations of the Study
There was reluctance of some key informants which was assumed to be a result of their limited understanding of the research topic or to weakness found in their school administration. It is usually known that most people do not like to disclose their weak side. Some informants did not have enough time to fill questionnaires and/or inventory forms in that case, the researcher was obliged to interview them and to complete questionnaires and/or forms in their place.
Some respondents tried to give wrong information in order to cover their weakness for example lack of some important educational facilities. To minimize on the limitation of inadequate understanding of the topic the researcher made an effort to explain to the respondents what the research is all about and to control the problem of fear to disclose the weak points of the schools the researcher assured respondents of anonymity
1.9 Operational Definition of terms
1. Public Schools: Schools which are funded by the government and administered by government appointees whose teachers and other staff are paid by the government.
2. Private Schools: Schools which are established funded and managed by the private sectors.
3. Schools Facilities:These are instructional materials, space, equipments structures, machines and accessories within the school which facilitates the teaching and learning activities and at the same time protects the physical well-being of the students.
4. Students’ Academic Performance:This is the outcome or achievements of students after being subjected to the use of teaching, learning, health, sport and recreational facilities.
5. Health Facilities: They are facilities that help the general well-being of students in relation to their health. They can be clinic, sick bay, drugs and first aid box.
6. Sport Facilities: These are things like football field, basketball court, table tennis, and volley ball among others that are used by students in other to keep them physically fit for learning.
7. Recreational Facilities: These are spaces such as gardens, parks, playground among others that students spend their leisure on.