The study examines the availability of qualified teachers and effective teaching and learning of basic technology in selected junior secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area. Technology is a scientific knowledge potential ways in industry to design new machines and equipment. It is also, the modification of the natural environment to satisfy perceived human wants and needs. People continue to develop new technology to improve life.The study adopted the survey design of which questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. The questionnaire was administered to the one hundred and twenty-five respondents which were the used as sample size through the simple random techniques. The study concluded that there are no qualified basic technology students in secondary schools in Ethiope East, the level of effective teaching is of basic technology is very poor and this is affecting the performance of students and the level of effective learning by students of basic technology is also very poor. The study recommended that the government should encourage teachers to embark of the teaching of profession of basic technology through increasing welfare packages to enable the availability of qualified teachers and concern authority should ensure that they train and retrain teacher of basic technology to increase their knowledge both for practical and theory.
1.1 Background of the study
The recent advancement in technology and its application in every day human life have cause quick knowledge acquisition. Technology is the systematic phaeton of technology device for human assistance. According to Hornsby (2010), technology is a scientific knowledge potential ways in industry to design new machines and equipment. It is also, the modification of the natural environment to satisfy perceived human wants and needs.People continue to develop new technology to improve life. Faizi ,shaki, sidra-tl-muntaha (2013), since human needs are insatiable. Technology tries to offer possible solution to human needs. Student in secondary school required adequate use of scientific knowledge to help them develop innovation thinking creatively as well as research skill.
This is the point that indicates the importance of basic technology knowledge, skill and experience among secondary school students in Nigeria. Obim and Okolie (2014) explained that basic technology is a core subject among the pre-vocational (subjects of the junior secondary school made up with other subjects like technical drawing), applied electricity, Wood work, metal work, basic electronics, and ceramic. Obviously, technical education on basic technology is practically impossible without fuel practice or practical. Onwuzurugbo (2007) observed that basic technology involves academic practical study of materials and sources of energy with the ultimate intention of applying knowledge from the study to provide a comfortable environment for man.
Basic technology is functionally accepted in secondary school because of it’s abundant resources and usefulness in larger world. Elom and Okolie (2014) stated that the study of basic technology is to help student reduce ignorance of technology, it gives opportunity to student to use tools and machines that are used in the industrial process, it provides skill, that help the learners to handle any piece of work given them. Also, students who have acquired basic technology knowledge and do not have means of continuing their students who have acquired basic technology knowledge education may be employed as craftsman in the industry. Uwameiya (2006) observed that through basic technology, students are assisted to explore the various areas of technology towards making intelligent career. Basic technology has three main objectives as stated by the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 2004. Basic technology provides pre-vocational orientation for further technology; to provide basic technology literacy for every living and to stimulate creativity.
The above objectives can be achieved when the learning ground, effective teaching and the availability of qualified teachers are present in the schools. According to Louhran (2014), there is growing interest in the professional development like basic technology educators as the demands, expectations, and requirements of teacher education increasingly come under. Scrutiny, Akiri (2013), stated that what the teacher does, influence the whole process of learning. Effective teachers produce better performing student.
The quality of teachers and qualified teachers are important instrument in enhancing effective learning and teaching. This is achieved by the educational attainment of teachers. According to Wikipedia (2004), teacher education the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge attitudes, behavours and skill they required to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom. Osuji (2009), teacher education is one pre-requisite for effective teaching and learning because it is the professional education of teachers toward attainment of attitudes skill; and knowledge considered derived so as to make them efficient and effective in their work in accordance with the need of a society.
Teachers’ quality enhances the performance of students. Ufonabasi and Friday (2014) explained that the quality of teachers enhances teaching quality and make the teaching of basic technology education more dynamic and goal-oriented. According to the Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) the objectives of teacher training in basic technology is classroom teachers for all levels of the educational system, to encourage further, the spirit of enquiring and creativity in teachers, to help teacher fit into social life of the community and the society at large teachers. Training programme involve practices and methods that aim at promoting creativity and skill for professional qualification.
The essence of teacher quality and effective teaching and learning in basic technology is to impact on the student’s academic performance. Osuji (2009), there are cases of unavailability of qualified teachers in secondary school in Nigeria. Many a time, there are teachers who are not qualified or inexperience or teachers specialized in other filed drafting to take basic technology as a kind of filling the gap of teachers needed for basic technology in secondary school. This trend has continued for years now in Nigeria especially in rural areas.
Udofot (2010), posited that the nation places importance on the quality of its teachers and the education they receive. Is predicated on the high social demand society is making on education teachers. Pre-requisite qualification requirement therefore, needs to be given priority attention if quality basic education is to be realized appropriate qualification and experience are needed by teachers to impact skill for productive and engaging practical activities in the learner.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Basic technology is now regarded as one educational field that transform students tremendously. Basically, technology is to help students get opportunity to knowledge and use of tools and machines that are used in the industrial process, Also, students who acquired basic technology knowledge are better after school, (Uwameiya (2009). This is as a result of the growth in information technologies in Nigeria.
However, there are challenges that confront the teaching of basic technology in secondary schools in Nigeria. It is frequently seen that secondary schools are lacking qualified teachers in basic technology education and effective teaching. Secondary schools in rural areas are mostly affected. In the case of lack of qualified teachers of basic technology, it is obvious that effective teaching of basic education will be noticed.
Adejoh (2006) reported that, there was scarcity of teachers for the basic technology programme. Adejoh (2006), stated in a survey conducted in 2006 discovered that more than 90% of the JSS students registered for the subject but less than 60% of the teachers were qualified to teach the subject. In same vein, Ogwa (2002) emphasized that some teachers did not major in Basic Technology yet, they teach the subject. Many of the teachers that teach the subject had secondary school qualification. Therefore, this study is to investigate the availability of qualified teachers and effective teaching and learning of basic technology among Junior secondary schools in Ethiope East LGA of Delta State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The generally objective of the study is the availability of qualified teachers and effective teaching and learning of basic technology while the specific objectives are as follows;
- Determine the availability of qualified teachers for basic technology in selected secondary school in Ethiope East.
- Find out the level of effective teaching and learning of basic technology in Ethiope East.
- Discover the factors that contribute to the availability of qualified teachers for basic technology in Ethiope East.
- Find out how effective teaching and learning of basic technology in selected secondary school in Ethiope East Local Governement Area can be achieved.
1.4 Research Questions
- How availableare qualified teachers of basic technology in selected secondary school in Ethiope East Government Area?
- What is the level of effective teaching and learning of basic technology in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
- What are the factors that contribute to the availability of qualified teachers of basic technology in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
- How can effective teaching and learning of basic technology in selected secondary school in Ethiope East Local Government Area be achieved.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There are no qualified teachers in basic technology in Junior secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area
- There is no significant relationship between availability of qualified teachers of basic technology and effective teaching and learning of basic technology
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study is to investigate into the level of availability of qualified teachers for basic technology in selected secondary school in Ethiope East Local Government Area, measure the level of effective teaching and learning of basic technology, discovered the factors that cause the availability of qualified teachers for basic technology and expose the effective of availability of qualified teachers and effective teaching and learning of basic technology in selected secondary school.
The study will benefiteducational administrators in Nigeria especially in Delta State. Because, the result of the finding will help them to better understand the availability of qualified basic technology teachers as well as provide knowledge for them to training and recruit qualified teachers. Also, the study will be a blue print to guide school administrators how they can train and retrain their teachers to effectively teach and cause good learning of basic technological education in Nigeria.
Apart from school administrators, school teachers in the field of basic technology will benefit from this study because the result of the findings will encourage teachers to aspire to acquire good basic technology education so that they can be effective in their teaching.
Finally, the students of basic Technology in secondary schools will benefit from this study because the essence of the study is to find a way to increase teaching productivity of teachers and the posting of qualified teachers in basic technology in Nigeria.
Therefore the study will use a structured questionnaire to gather information from teachers and students from the schools in Ethiope East Local Government, Area. The response will form the results and these will be analyzed using the likert scale and chi-square. The study will also use existing literature to compare the existing results and the results from this study to either established upon existing knowledge or counter what has be established through research as it relate to the study.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The geographic scope of the study is selected Juniorsecondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. However, the study focused on Abraka. Also, the study covers a subject topic of the availability of qualified teachers and effective teaching and learning of basic technology. The periodic scope is for one academic session which is for 2017/2018 session.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
Qualified Teacher: This is the certification received by a teacher as a proficient instructor to carry out teaching and learning activities to secondary school students.
Availability: This is the possibility of providing something for a particular use and purpose. To be available in teacher, it means that the teacher if proficiently ready to undertake teaching activities.
Effective Teaching and Learning:This is the method and strategies adopted by a teacher to ensure that students learning and understand what they are taught in school.
Basic Technology:Basic technology is a subject that provides knowledge of technology for students in secondary school. It is a way of providing enough technological activities both in theory and practical for the development of student’s technological understanding.