TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - i
Abstract - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgments - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - vi
Abstract - - - - - - - - - viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of problem - - - - - - 8
1.3 Objective of the study - - - - - - 10
1.4 Research questions - - - - - - 11
1.4 Significant of study - - - - - - 11
1.6 Scope of the study - - - - - - - 12
1.7 Definition of terms - - - - - - 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND
2.1 Pattern of Television Campaign on Patronage of Nigeria
Made Products - - - - - - - 13
2.2 Influence of Television Commercials on Consumption
- of Nigeria Products- -- - - - - - 16
2.3 The Use of Celebrity in Advertisement Campaign for
Patronage of Nigeria Products and Services - - - 19
2.4 Competitive Advertisement Campaign between Nigeria Products
and Foreign Products- - - - - - - 20
2.5 Theoretical Framework (Persuasive theory) - - - 21
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 24
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 4
3.2 Population of the Study - - - - - 24
3.3 Sample/ Sampling Size - - - - - 25
3.4 Sampling Techniques - - - - - - 25
3.5 Instruments of Data Collection - - - - 25
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection - - - - 26
3.7 Technique of Data Analysis - - - - - 26
3.8 Limitations of Data Collection - - - - 26
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - - 27
4.2 Data Analysis - - - - - - - 43
4.3 Discussion of findings - - - - - 45
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - 48
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 49
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 50
REFERENCES - - - - - - - 52
APPENDIX (Questionnaire) - - - - - 56
The study examines the Abraka residents’ awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria made products. The study was anchored on the theory of persuasive theory which concern with the influence of and the effects that the mass media advertisement on the patronage of Nigeria product. The research work was carried out using the survey method with the population size 46,000 drawn from the Abraka environment and the sample size of 120 for the administration questionnaire. The simple random technique which gives the sample equal chances of being selected was employed and the data from the questionnaire was selected, collated and analyzed. The study showed Jingles, dramas and special announcement were adopted by NTA in carrying the campaign of patronage of Nigeria product by Nigerians, Jingle and special announcement were majorly used since the respondents were able to identify their frequency in NTA, television on the public, the truth is that television programmes are structured in such a way to persuade, compel and interest the audience and that television does not just disseminate information but present the information in such a way the audience cannot resist it. The study recommended that campaign should not be restricted to only government owned television stations because, many people do not really place importance to government owned television because of low creative programmes, the drama for the campaign should be produced by experience producers in the Nollywood so that the quality can attract, hold and stimulate the audience to take actions, the campaign should target programmes that have good audience traffic so as to cover much people and making the campaign successful and different dramas, jingles and announcements should be produced and disseminated to cover different languages, culture and religions in Nigeria.
1.1 Background to the Study
The development of any country is in the economy. The economy is the hub of every other sector. The economy is the subject of international relationship. Countries of the world practice international trade for economic development of each of the county. According to Agbionifoh and Elimian (1999), globalization has liberalized trade among nations and changes the tide of events in the way and manner businesses are conducted, thus turning the world into a global village with free flow of goods, services, ideas, persons, information among others, across nations. The product choice of most consumers in Nigeria, similar to others from developing economies tilts towards foreign products especially those products from more technologically advanced countries.
Despite the fact that nations depend on others to stabilize the economy, individual countries must ensure that development of production and manufacturing sector must be held with high esteem. Aliyu (2017) explained that one of the major national goals in Nigeria is to have a self- reliant nation. This is measured in the level of goods produced and consume within Nigeria. A country is a big economic instability if the country total consumption of goods are imported than those produced by the country.
Statistically, Nigeria now pushes greater part of nation’s income for importing foreign goods to their increasing demand. According to CBN (2014), Nigeria food import bill rose from mere
N112.88million annually during 190 to 194 to Nl.964.8mihion in 1991. While between 2000 and 2018; the sum of #180 billion was spent on importation of cheap grained. Sad enough, the exportation is no equal to import. The importation outran exportation. Aliyu (2017), there was decline in export in crop production while food production increased only marginal.
This trend is not a good picture to the development of the Nigeria economy. There are factors responsible to this negative shift m the increase of consumption of goods made abroad. The major issue is the behavior of the consumption. According to Ogumbe (2001), the manner with which Nigerians display towards the locally manufactured goods is very amazing consumers. lfediora, Ugwuanyi and lfediora (2017), Nigerians consumers’ preference for imported products increase despite the availability and high technical quality of some categories of locally produced substitutes. The preference for foreign products indicates a biased perception in favour of the foreign goods.
This means the value system it is important to know to an extent value of goods determine the preference. The value controls the consumer behavior. It is the understanding of value that makes producers stay in business. Consumers bahaviour is the activities people engage in actual or potential use of market items where products, service, information or ideals, (Achumba, 1996). This perception is what Ifediaora et al (2017), called the difference between the potential customer’s evaluation of all the advantages and the perceived alternativeness. A customer perceived value of a product affects the price the customer is willing, to pay. Customers place value base on the products anticipated ability to fulfill a need and provide satisfaction, also referred to as utility.
Essentially, the general notion in the market has differential attitude between Nigeria made goods and imported goods. The patronage for these categories of goods is not the same in Nigeria. According to Aliyu (2017), made in Nigeria goods are goods manufactured in Nigeria by indigenous manufacturing companies based in Nigeria using mainly locally sourced materials. It was the need to differentiate products that brought the issue of made in Nigeria product and today, all goods made in Nigeria are regarded as substandard. According to Opoku and Akoril (2009), the impact of country of origin on customer’s attitude towards buying local campaign initiatives influence the buying behavior of consumers. They found that the attitude can be seen as protectionist, nationalistic and self-interest
As a result of this, differentiation among products, many Nigerians do not appreciate made in Nigeria goods. The present administration is sensitizing Nigerians to have good patronage behavior towards Nigeria made products. This is done through the media especially state owned media. NTA is among the present stations that carry constant campaign messages to the public on this regard. There are various jingles, commercials and discussion programmes, drama e.t.c the reason is that the mass media are agents of social change. According to Khalid, Ahmed and Muffi (2015), the media are important channels in shaping the development process of a country. Development involves changes of attitude towards government policies. Such policies are aimed at improving political and economic lives of the people.
Nnawmwka (1989), states that the purpose of a national communication policy is using the mass media to achieve accelerated growth and transformation of the society in different sphere and at different levels of national life. There is a deliberate and coherent mass communication policy. It is important for the media to play a distinguished role in the establishment and furtherance of a desirable new social order. The broadcast media are collective media of communication by when general public or populace is kept informed about the day to day happenings of making a lot direct personal communication between the communicator and public. Anagnosto, Smith and Psychogropoulous (2010), refer Des Freedman’s formulation of media policy refers to it as the formal as well as interest values and goods that shape the emergence of mechanism designed to structure the direction of and behavior in particular media environment The National communication policy in Nigeria came up as a result of the seminar that was organized at ASCON, Badagry in 1987. At the meeting which was attended by media scholars and other stakeholders, recommendations were drawn which became the document known as the Nigeria National Mass Communication Policy. Though there have been meetings to come up with a policy and even subsequent reviews, but there is no single document that has been codified and officially called the National Mass Communication Policy in Nigeria. Uwon and Alao (2013), state that the foundation of the Nigeria national communication policy is the Constitution, (at that time 1979); however the 1979 Constitution was reviewed in 1999 and this is the basis for the national communication policy in Nigeria.
According to Uwon and Alao (2013), the content of the broadcast media, should be based on comprehensive coverage of Nigerian culture and serve as a tool for mobilizing the rural populace to national development in production and manufacturing. According to the 2004 review document, all radio and television stations shall allocate at least 20 per cent of their programmes to rural activities while community-based media shall allocate 80 per cent to their immediate localities; also the content of their broadcast should accommodate the country’s cultural diversity in order to promote national unity and cohesion.
As fallout from the above, the National Broadcasting Commission, the regulatory agency of the broadcast media stipulates 60% of local content to 40% foreign content for all radio and TV broadcasts. One objective of the broadcast media is the broadcast of news and programmes in indigenous language; this is paramount so the programme can be of relevance to the local communities. According to Khalid, Ahmed and Mufti (2015), the positive role of media in national development has been recognized in the Third World countries because information dissemination plays a key role in bringing social change among the receivers. Besides being a powerful news gathering and news disseminating platform, media is an institution with a de social foundation. A relationship of reciprocity between media and society lends ii 11w strength it enjoys. Whether print or electronic, media in its appeal is massive and profound. From individual behavior to social norms the gamut of media is vast and deep.
Electronic media being more picture oriented carries more sensational and glamour. In comparison print medium is serious but lasting. Despite the abundance of television channels which leave hardly any time to breathe at ease, newspapers still continue to be the effective sources of communication. A magnificent gift to the mankind and highly indispensable, press does a splendid job, performs a crucial role as a communicator. Because of its importance and significance, it has been highly acclaimed, admired and appreciated. And it won’t be unpalatable to say that what air is to living beings, the press is to society. In this apparently free press scenario the question remains that what issues get prominence in the press and why are others relegated to the back pages, (Khalid, Ahmed and Mufti, 2015)
The journalist being aware of their role can influence their audience and attract their attention to cooperate and participate in more equitable developmental plans. Since the last two decades parallel to the growing importance of studies on development communication in the developing countries, new styles of development journalism have received growing attention. It can be said that development communication and communication development complement each other. Communication can become a tool for development if it is being used by professional journalists who convey development-directed messages to the audience. The constant evaluation of the media’s performance is necessary in order to achieve a helpful development communication reflecting society’s real needs.
The Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) as the government-owned station cannot be called the public broadcaster in that it takes advertisement and this should be the reserve of commercial stations. Some people will argue that the NTA is a choice for advertisers because of its wider reach across the nation. However, the 2004 review document states that Public Service stations shall not be involved in commercial broadcasting and shall be funded from sources such as set license fees, grants and other industry charges. The private stations are to derive their funding from commercial activities.
The media m Nigeria comprises print and broadcast media. The first broadcast station in Nigeria was the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) by Chief Obafemi Awolowo. The station though with a political undertone was established to cater for the education needs of the people. It gave rise to other broadcast stations in the East and Northern part of Nigeria. These stations acted as a voice to the proprietors which were the regional governors. Years later, the national broadcaster was set up, the Nigeria television Authority (NTA). To avoid monopoly, there was deregulation of the broadcast industry by the then Military governor, Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida. This gave rise to the establishment of private stations (radio and television).
12 Statement of the Problem
Television is capable of creating various kinds of impact on the economy. They play significance role in the function and change of any society. According to Khalid, Ahmed and Mufti (2015), mass media are capable of creating various kinds of impact on mankind. They play a crucial role in the function and change of any society. The mass media constitute a powerful and pervading force in our lives. We are exposed daily to bombardment of media messages. Most of the information we receive about our community, our state, the nation and the world comes to us through newspapers, magazines, television and radio.
The media messages are for the public to make use of them for national development the message is capable of influencing the behavior of the masses towards a particular government policy. Khalid, Ahmed and Mufti (2015), mass that the information and views communicated through these media have great impact on our attitudes towards people, events and problems. Mass media expose people to a flood of information almost narcotizing reader, listener or viewer.
One of such messages is the campaign for Nigerian s to buy or patronage Nigeria made products against total dependency on imported goods. Due to mass media the range and amount of information available to the people has vastly increased. Effective use of the mass media has the potential for increasing the public understanding of the goals of development programs and activities of development workers. It can Increase public support for development programs and it can have a significant impact on the decision of development planners, policy makers, and legislators that affect these programs (Khalid, Ahmed and Mufti (2015).
Therefore, the study seeks to investigate the role of NTA In the campaign for public patronage of made in Nigeria product with a view to dose knowledge gap in regard to the objectives of the study.
13 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study shall be on television awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria made products. However, the following specific objectives are to guide the study.
- To determine the extent of the awareness campaign of patronage of Nigeria made products by NTA.
- To measure the progress in the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria products by NTA.
- To find out the challenges noticed in the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria products by NTA.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guide by the following research questions.
- What is the extent of the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria made products by NTA?
- What is the progress in the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria products by NIA?
- What are the challenges noticed in the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria products y NTA?
1.5 Significance of the Study
There has been need to research on this topic because of the current issues associated with buying behavior of Nigerians towards Nigeria made products. Many people have zeroed their heart to goods made in Nigeria because of standard. However, they are some high quality goods m the market that the people refuse to patronages and they go for substandard products from abroad. Base on this gap in knowledge, the government is using the media to mobilize and change the public attitude towards made in Nigeria products.
The study will determine the extent of the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria made products by NTA, measure the progress in the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria products by NTA and find out the challenges noticed in the awareness campaign for patronage of Nigeria products by NTA.
The findings from this study will provide scholars with knowledge for further research. Also, it will be guiding principles to awareness campaign of television towards patronage of Nigeria made products.
1.6 scope of the Study
The study covers students the residents of Abraka. The coverage will be restricted to three major clusters in Abraka and they are residents in Ekrejeta, Police Station road and Urhuoka. The age coverage of residents will be adults. The time period for the study shall cover one year; that is from January to December 2018.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Awareness: This is the creation of information about a thing for the notice of the public. It involves knowledge creation.
Campaign: This means a strategy to drive sensitization of an idea or product for public information and change of mind set.