The research investigated the implementation of the SDGs specifically goal 9 in Delta State using two local government areas namely Isoko north and Oshimili south as the study, highlighting the prospects and challenges of implementing this goal. It further examines the extent to which this goal has been implemented and how it affects sustainable development in Delta State. This study analyses infrastructure, technology or innovation and industry in the various cities, towns and villages in Delta State.
The study adopted the survey research design. Data used was collected through questionnaires and interviews, and the sample size for this study comprised of 200 people from both local government each totally 400 respondents using Taro Yamane sampling technique and 4 respondents was selected using the purposive sampling technique for the interviews. Data collected analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively using the SPSS computer software and the findings was represented in tables as percentages and frequencies. Findings revealed that revealed that SDG particularly Goal 9 in Delta has been established with the intention to promote infrastructure, industry, and innovation within the State in order to enhance industrial development and overall development process of Delta State. The government has put in place a lot of measure in the implementation of SDG goal 9 in Delta State which are job creation office, the establishment of a scheme that is mainly designed to follow true foreign investment, the commitment of the state government, and a renewed commitment to sensitize the people on the need to cooperate and be friendly to investors in order to foster a very good relationship between indigenes and investors, thereby leading to development. Furthermore, it was found that SDG goal 9 in Delta State has bring about grassroots development, increase in economy power, wealth creation and others towards sustainable development of communities and cities in Delta State. And challenges affecting the implementation of SDG goal 9 in Delta State are human factor, cultural, institutional structure having a mindset that negate to sustainable development due to political interest and other interest that are borne out of desire to please a particular set of people. Financial sector and there is also a challenge of lack of political will.
Conclusively, this study as revealed that SDG goal 9 has led to industrial development both in Delta State and Nigeria as whole. Base on the findings indicated to this study, it is therefore recommended among others Government should formulate policies that will encourage and foster foreign investment; Financial institutions should be willing to give long term loan to investors in order to enhance development both within the State and the country as a whole; Succession in government should not abandon uncompleted project of the predecessor; There is the need for experts in order to render their services in the area of manpower training; Government should ensure that there is equally more efforts towards security in the country which could encourage more foreign investment in the area of industrialization.
1.1 Background to the Study
Before the establishment of the Sustainable Development Goals, the global community operated with the Millennium Development Goals that highlighted progressive development with the specification of eight goals which were time bound and due on or before the year 2015. The MDGs came as a result of the Millennium summit which lasted three days (from 6 September to 8 September 2000) and was the largest meeting of world leaders in the year 2000, in which 189 members of the United Nations adopted the eight chapters and key objectives of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
The MDGs were positioned to achieve the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, universal primary education popularly known as the Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Nigeria, promotion of gender equality and women empowerment, reduction of child mortality rate, improvement of maternal health, combating HIV-AIDS, malaria and other disease, ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development. The MDGs were setup as a sort of partnership between the developed and developing countries of the world. According to the office of the special assistant to the president on SDGs, the world has made significant progress in achieving many of the goals but the progress made is uneven the world over and across the goals. Within countries, poverty is greatest for rural areas, though urban poverty is also extensive, growing, and underreported by traditional indicators (Special Assistant, 2018). The International development community has over time subscribed to view that the MDGs has helped the promotion of socioeconomic development, improve childhood health, combat diseases, increase educational access and achieve other long-held objectives. (IGES, 2015)
Although the millennium development goals made significant progress and achievement during its limited time, it still didn’t cover its full parameters and that is why in 2015 the world leaders meet again and came with a more ambitious set of goals to achieve popularly known as the sustainable development goals. The sustainable development goals otherwise known as the SDGs are a collection of seventeen (17) goals which were invariably additions and improvements on the previous MDGs. The SDGs were set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 as part of Resolution 70/1 of the United Nations General Assembly tagged Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development which was shortened to the 2030 Agenda. The SDGs cover social and economic development issues including poverty, hunger, health, education, global warming, gender equality, water, sanitation, energy, urbanization, environment and social justice. Just like the MDGs, the SDGs are geared toward creating a better world and a more sustainable tomorrow, the former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon describes it as a universal, integrated and transformative vision for a better world (Odigwe, 2018). The SDGs have seventeen clear and independent goals but for the purpose of this research the ninth goal i.e. goal 9 which emphasises industry, innovation and infrastructure would be the topic of discuss. The purpose of this goal is to “build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation”. (UNDP, 2018). The SDGs emphasizes the importance of the interlinkages and integrated nature of its goals and furthermore acknowledging the possible synergies and trade-off between its goals would make it easier to achieve (Division of Public Administration and Development Management, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2018)
Goal 9 of the SDGs comprises of three related and interconnected items namely industry, innovation and infrastructure and their relation comes from the fact that for any sustainable society to survive and exist it need functional infrastructure and this in turn attracts industry which will foster innovation or the fostering of innovation that will develop into industry and better infrastructure. Infrastructure provides the basic physical facilities essential to business and society; industrialization drives economic growth and job creation, thereby reducing income inequality; and innovation expands the technological capabilities of industrial sectors and leads to the development of new skill (Adelokiki, 2017). The achievement of this goal ensures a major leap in the achievement of many of the other sustainable development goals like goal 11 which is about building sustainable cities. (Odigwe, 2018)
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In many third world countries which are developing or underdeveloped there is little in the way infrastructure, technology or industry and as such the implementation of the SDGs Goal 9 is greatly stunted. In a third world country like Nigeria, Industry, Infrastructure and Technology is majorly limited to the urban areas or cities and the in Delta State this goal is visible in cities like Asaba which is the states’ capital and Warri.
Ideally, in the implementation and realization of all the SDGs, developing countries with help of developed countries would grow and be able to set up sustainable cities with better infrastructure and industries and also foster innovation.
The problem associated with this study is even though there are offices tasked with the implementation of this goal and funds budgeted for the realization of this goal, factors like corruption and weak institutions come to play in the sense that money budgeted for the furtherance of this goal is being siphoned and pocketed by individuals in government. State projects carried out to ensure the development of infrastructure, technology and industry in small towns and villages within Delta State are neglected due to little or no oversight from state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study analyses the sustainable development goal particularly the SDG goal 9. So in essence, the study aims at identifying the prospects and challenges of implement goal 9 in Delta State.
Specifically, the objectives of this research are to:
- Examine the SDGs particularly Goal 9 in Delta State
- Identify measures for implementing this goal
- Determine the extent to which this goal has been implemented in Delta State
- Ascertain the various challenges associated with the implementation of this goal
1.4 Research Questions
- How has the implementation of SDG goal 9 affect Delta State?
- What measure have the government of Delta State taken to implement SDG goal 9?
- Are the policies made by the state government with regards to the achievement of the goal effective?
- What are the challenges facing the implementation of SDG goal 9 in Delta State?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study aims at identifying the prospects and challenges of implementing the SDGs particularly goal 9 in Delta State and as such will expose and provide understanding on the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals outlining the areas of failure on the Delta State government in the implementation of goal 9 throughout the state.
The discoveries made in this study will show that visible implementation of this goal is only existent in the cities and town and this will bring the attention of the government and foreign entities to the development of smaller towns and villages.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is focused on the implementation of the SDGs specifically goal 9 in Delta State, highlighting the prospects and challenges of implementing this goal. It further examines the extent to which this goal has been implemented and how it affects sustainable development in Delta State. This study analyses infrastructure, technology or innovation and industry in the various cities, towns and villages in Delta State.
1.7 Definition of key Terms
- Sustainable Development:
This is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. It can easily be classified as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. It is development that will consider the future as well as the present.
The concept of sustainable development was popularized in 1987 by the report Our Common Future produced by the Brundtland commission which the United Nation setup to look into the causes of limited progress and build global momentum for change. (IGES, 2015)
It is basically the possibility or likelihood of some future event occurring. A mental picture of a future or expected event or possibility of achieving success basically, the chances of success. It also means the potential that a thing may come to pass, so judging to the research title, this informs that this research aims at identifying the possibility or likelihood of the achievement of goal 9 of the SDGs.
According to the Collins English Dictionary, a challenge is something new and difficult which requires great effort and determination. They are questions or expressions of doubt about the truth, legality, possibility or purpose of something, a demanding task or situation. A challenge to something is questioning the truth and value of it. Challenges are those difficulties that arise in or hinder the implementation of a project, a plan or work. This highlights that this research aims to identify the variables and objects that can hinder the implementation of goal 9.
As one of the component of goal 9, it is important to understand the meaning of industry so as to know how it affects the implementation of the SDGs. Industry is any economic activity concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacture of goods in factories. Industry basically refers to creation of goods from collected raw materials in preparation for distribution and this will in turn help with the creation of sustainable cities because industry contributes to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a state.
It is the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. It refers to fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city or other including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Innovation can be defined as a new idea, creative thoughts, and new imaginations in forms of device or method, it is often viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs or existing market needs. It can defined as something more original and more effective and new that beaks into the market or society. In these definitions there is a nexus or a connection between innovation and technology and that is why innovation and technology are used \interchangeably in the outlining goal 9; this research aims at measuring the development of innovation in delta state.
1.8 Chapter Outlay
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one outlines the background of the study, the statement of the problem under consideration, the purpose of the study, the objective of the study, the significance of the study, the scope of the study, definition of the relevant terms used in the study and the organization of the study.
Chapter two contains the reviews of various literature by other scholars that are relevant to the study, as well as the theories that are relevant to the study and adopted by the researcher.
Chapter three contains the research design, the target population of the study, the sample size and procedure, the methods of data, the instrument of the research, the validity and reliability of data collection instruments and the methods of data analysis adopted.
Chapter four outlines the result, analysis and interpretation of the study (Essentially, Data Presentation and Data Analysis).
Chapter five contains the discussion of the findings, a summary of the study, conclusion, references and an Appendix which displays the questionnaire applied in the study.