The study examined the terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria. Tsafe local government, Nassarawa state was used as a study. The study employed the survey design and the purposive sampling technique to select 450 people living in Tsafe local government, , Nassarawa state. A well-constructed questionnaire, which was adjudged valid and reliable, was used for collection of data from the respondents. The data obtained through the administration of the questionnaires was analyzed using the Pearson analysis.
The results revealed that: States that have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria are many and visible. The mechanisms of the states in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria is potent. Terrorism has a significant effect on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria. The structure in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack is potent.
The study hereby concluded that terrorism has a negative impact on child protection and care in northern Nigeria. The study suggested; States that have not effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria should be sanctioned. The mechanisms of the states in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria should be reviewed and strengthened. Terrorism should be thoroughly tackled so rights of the child in northern Nigeria can be protected. The structure in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack should be looked into. United nation and EU need to fully utilize fast information tracker to save retrieval time, allow maximum communication, low deaths, low violation, and timely access to information about terrorism in north. United nation and EU need to be positive when it comes to passing information for processes improvement about terrorism in north. The government need to maintain statuesque within the northerners so they will feel protected.
1.1 Background to the study
According to United Nation UN (2017), terrorism affects everyone, its social, economic and environmental effects are hardest on vulnerable groups all over the world. The impacts of terrorist attacks, whether in the form of bombing, massive shooting, kidnappings and abductions, organized attacks, or use of chemicals, are felt most acutely by those segments of the population already in vulnerable situations. Vulnerable groups includes women, children, racial and ethnic minorities, migrants and non-citizens, refugees, indigenous peoples, and those living in extreme poverty, who bear the most disproportionate burden of terrorism (Wessells, 2018). Due to the age, mental and physical limitations, children are particularly vulnerable to the far-reaching impact of terrorism (UNICEF, 2016). Generally, children are often unable to make or implement decisions that could protect, care for or liberate them from violent situations. Even when able to do so, children often lack the economic powers to escape violent situations (UNICEF, 2016). The resulting chaos, fear and causalities associated with terrorism would most often times mean that children are separated form their families, watch their parents die, themselves sustain fatal bodily injuries, suffer permanent physical disability, suffer disruption to daily routines or school, or in some cases get dislocated from residence or simply get missing (UNICEF, 2016).
Children in Nigeria have had their fair share of the problem of terrorism ravaging the fragile North Eastern part of the country. Children have been killed, abducted, forcefully recruited, and internally displaced while others have sought refuge in neighbouring countries. According to Zerrougui (2015), there is dramatic rise in violence, growing recruitment and use of children, sexual violence against girls as well as countless attacks on schools, hence these group of children deserve urgent care and protection. A recent report of UNICEF (2016) declared that owing to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, over 1.2 million children with over half less than five years of age have been forced to flee their home and an additional 265 000 have been uprooted in Cameroon, Chad and Niger. Attacks on the schools, killing and kidnapping of school children has forced them to stay away from school out of fear of terrorist attacks.
Children are also at risk for experiencing mental health difficulties after a disaster or act of terrorism, most especially children that witnessed the event, lost parents, friends or their loved ones as a result, and even those children who merely reside in the affected community or watch coverage of the event on television. Incidents of terror therefore affect children protection right and care in terms of right to health; education; life, survival and development; food; family unification; and a suite of other civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights enshrined in the legally binding constitutional child protection and care policy.
Nigeria including the northern part is a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) that requires the family, society and the State to ensure without discrimination, the right of the child to such measures of protection and care as required by his status as a minor. The ICESCR requires special measures of protection of children from economic and social exploitation and requires States to set age limits below which paid employment or child labour should be prohibited. Other international instruments extending protection and care to children are the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (African Women’s Protocol). Though the various human rights documents are applicable to all human beings, these legal statutes has been utilized by respective regulatory institutions in the north since there is no child specific instrument to adequately address the peculiar needs of children.
1.2 Statement of the problem
One of the most pressing concerns facing Nigeria for about a decade now is the geometric rise in the incidence and notoriety of terrorism and terrorist activities. Women and the children are badly affected. Zerrougui (2016) said children in the north-eastern part of Nigeria are in desperate need of protection and care from acts of terrorism and violence perpetuated by Boko Haram insurgents.
There is a saying that cuts across the nation that children are the future.” They are the future of any family, country etc. To this extent, it is the duty of every government and society to ensure that children are given every care, help, protection, training and education, they may need, in order to grow into useful citizens and members of society. All legal instruments made for protecting the rights of children come under one banner in the best interest of the child.
However, it should be noted that terrorism activities has therefore led to the violation of various child right that is required for protection and care, hence, the need to carry out this study on terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The general objective of this study is to analyze terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria while the specific objectives are to:
- Identify how many states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria.
- Examine the mechanisms of the states in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria.
- Investigate the effect of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria.
- Examine the structure in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack.
1.4 Research questions
- How many states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria?
- What are the mechanisms of the states in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria?
- What are the effects of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria?
- What are the structures in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack?
1.5 Significance of the study
Outcome of this study will be useful for government, policy makers and the general public in understanding the demonstration of the child right act in northern Nigeria. It will also educate in understanding the effects of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child to protection and care in northern Nigeria and also reveal the structures in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area
Methodology is part of the research that shows the ways and approaches of collecting the data (Oliver, 2004). This research is primarily qualitative as it is based on the terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria between 2010 and 2018. The reason for choosing the qualitative analysis strategy is the exploratory and the qualitative nature of study. According to Robson (1993), flexibility is always the main strength of the case study strategy in terms of interpretation and getting access to the specified places. The research is a based on secondary data. We used document analysis/content analysis as main method of data collection. Document analysis/content analysis also called “textual analysis” (Travers, 2001) in the study will include all kinds of academic articles, textual and multi-media products, ranging from television programmes to web sites on the internet
SOURCES OF DATA
In the course of research for this work relevant data and information were obtained from the main sources. These were primary and secondary source.
Primary sources which were utilized in the course of the research for this work through interview on terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria.
Secondary sources are materials obtained from universities and public libraries include textbooks, journals and periodicals These sources helped to provide data and information relating to terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria
1.7 Scope of study
This study will cover the issues of terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria. Findings will cover the period of 2010 to 2018. It will be limited to all the states in the northern Nigeria.
1.8 History of child protection and care
There has never been a time when children were completely bereft of protection.
Before the era of legal protection, adults were aware, when a child was being maltreated and tried to help the child. In America, Criminal prosecution has been used to punish flagrant abusers of children. In 1907, for example, a New York shop keeper was convicted of sadistically assaulting his slave and her three years old daughter. In 1869, an Illinois father was prosecuted for confining his blind son in a cold cellar in the middle of winter (Wessells & Monteiro, 2013).
Organized child protection emerged, from the rescue of nine years old Mary Ellen Wilson. She lived with her guardians in one of New York’s worst tenements.
She was routinely beaten and neglected. A religious missionary named Etta Wheeler, learned of the child’s plight and determined to rescue her. Wheeler consulted the police, who declined to investigate. She sought advice from Henry Bergh, the founder of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Bergh asked his lawyer, Elbridge Gerry to find a legal mechanism to rescue the child. Elbridge Gerry employed a variant of the writ of habeas corpus to remove Mary Ellen from her guardians. Following the rescue of Mary Ellen, Henry Bergh and Elbridge Gerry, decided to create a non-governmental charitable society devoted to child protection and this gave rise to the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC), the world’s first entity devoted entirely to child protection.
Looking at the situation in Nigeria, the issue of child protection was nonexistent for a long time. During the colonial rule, the welfare of the Nigerian child was not particularly, a major concern to the colonial master. The first attempt at legislation, geared towards child protection in Nigeria, was in 1943, when the Children and Young Persons’ Act (CYPA) was promulgated for application in any part of the Protectorate of Nigeria on the order of the Governor-in-council. Subsequently, other legislations were promulgated.
1.8 Definition of terms
Terrorism: the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims.
Child protection: involves safety of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect. Child protection systems are a set of usually government-run services designed to safeguard children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability.
Child care: welfare of the child