The issues of entrepreneurship development and employment generation continue to receive high attention because of their impact on unemployment and poverty reduction in many parts of the world. The National Directorate of Employment was introduced by government in its efforts toward employment generation. This study investigated the impact of entrepreneurship centres on job creation in Nigeria, a case study of university of Uyo entrepreneurship centre. It has the following as its objectives:to survey the effects of entrepreneurship centres on job creation in Nigeria, to inquire the factors that constitute to unemployment in Nigeria and to investigate the benefits of entrepreneurship centres on the people of Uyo.
1.1 Background to the Study
Human economic development through a well planned education and training initiatives will help toheavily contribute to promotion of individuals’ interest and ambition within the nation (Egwu, 2009). Helping individuals to be gainfully employed, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) can have positive impact on the economic development, achieving full employment and promoting social inclusion. TVET programmes are defined as those skill based programmes mainly to help prepare students for straight entry into desired or interested occupations. The successful completion of the programme leads to a technical and vocational qualification which is very relevant in the labour market and well recognized the Ministry of Education (MoE) and employer’s associations in Nigeria in where it is obtained (UNESCO, 2007).
Entrepreneurship activities on the other hand has been beneficial because the Nigerian private sector comprising of small and medium enterprises provides diverse employment opportunities for over 50 percent of the country's population and 50 percent of the industrial output (Ariyo, 2005; Oyelola et al, 2013). Many other countries have been able to strengthen and transform entrepreneurship centres that are available within their jurisdictionsto vibrant and exciting onesand with the help of that, unemployment and poverty have been reduced to a minimal level. Unfortunately, reverse is the case here in Nigeria. The Report released by The World Bank on the Nigerian Economic in 2011 revealed that unemployment rate worsened from “12% of the working population in 2006 to 24% in 2011”. Being among the top richest states in terms of crude oil production and large federal allocation in the country, unemployment rate in Akwa Ibom State is also increasing at an alarming rate. This is not only in Akwa Ibom State but it is a common phenomenon throughout the whole country. According to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) as at 2010, the unemployment rate of Akwa Ibom State was the second highest in the south-south zone with 36.1%. Available records clearly show that in the last two decades of the independence of Nigeria as a sovereign nation (1960s and 1970s), unemployment and its attendant consequence: poverty, were not of national concern as they are today.
The rate at which graduates entering the labour market in the country in this recession yearsis uncontrollable and this is bringing unemployment, under-employment and the stress of social hazards associated with joblessness and prolonged inactivity.”According to the international labourcentre, the collective frustration among youth had been a contributing factor to protest movements around the world this year, and this has led to a difficulty for graduates and young people to find only part-time, menial and temporary work.Governments across the globe are struggling to find innovative solutions through labour market interventions such as addressing skills mismatches, job search support and entrepreneurship training.This study investigated the impact of entrepreneurship centres on job creation in Nigeria, a case study of university of Uyo entrepreneurship centre.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Unemployment as it is called has been a bordering issue in Nigeria. This has grown large that the situation cannot be addressed by mere campaign or words of mouth (Nwankwo&Ifejiofor, 2014). It requires the combined efforts of both individuals and the government of the country in particular and the world at large to formulate a lasting strategy to curb this menace. Unemployment in Nigeria has affected the youth and the economic development of the country from a broad spectrum of socio-economic perspective. It is obvious that the situation especially that of youth unemployment affected Nigeria's progress in several ways. Apart from the economic waste it brought to the nation, it also constitutes political unrest for the country (Ipaye, 1998). This situation has resulted in the continuous increase in crimes and other social vices experienced in our society in recent time. To salvage this ugly situation, several strategies have been developed in all spheres of human endeavours. These strategies are all found in entrepreneurship.
1.3 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
i) What are the effects of entrepreneurship centres on job creation in Nigeria?
ii) What are the factors that constitute to unemployment in Nigeria?
iii) What are the benefits of entrepreneurship centres on the people of Uyo?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of entrepreneurship centres on job creation in Nigeria, a case study of university of Uyo entrepreneurship centre. The specific objectives are:
i) To survey the effects of entrepreneurship centres on job creation in Nigeria.
ii) To inquire the factors that constitute to unemployment in Nigeria.
iii) To investigate the benefits of entrepreneurship centres on the people of Uyo.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The research hypotheses to be tested include:
i) There is no significant correlation between entrepreneurship centres and unemployment.
ii) There is a significant relationship between entrepreneurship and unemployment reduction.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial in highlighting the importance of entrepreneurship training and its impact on unemployment reduction in Nigeria. One of the SDG (Sustainable Development Goal) goals highlights education (training) as a critical factor to reducing poverty and dependency. Allow the identification of the concept and framework of entrepreneurship. It will also be beneficial in the area of development and its contribution to Nigeria’s economy as well as generating greater awareness among tertiary institutions on the importance of having proper and practical strategies for acquiring entrepreneurial skills.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will be carried out among the workers of university of Uyo entrepreneurship centre, Akwa Ibom State. Information collected from these workers shall be subjected to further analysis and the results got from it shall be final.
1.8 Limitation of the study
The study will be faced with a lot of challenges and one it the problem of finance. There is not going to be enough funds to print questionnaires and to also transport the researcher to meet the desired respondents. Another one is time; the researcher is currently busy with the demand of his academics. A lot of assignments are available for the researcher to do and coupled with his desire to read and learn at the same time. These are the major challenges of this study.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
Job creation:the process of providing new jobs, especially for people who are unemployed: the government's job creation strategy.
Skills acquisition: the ability to learn or acquire skills. It involves the development of a new skill, practice of a way of doing things usually gained through training or experience
Unemployment:Unemployment or joblessness, as defined by the International Labour Organization (1982) occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past five weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a%age by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force. According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2011), unemployment rate is the proportion of those who are looking for work but could not find work for at least 40 hours during the reference period to the total currently active (labour force) population.