There is a need for Nigeria to develop a world class educational system for Nigerians, the knowledge and skill in classroom assessment has to be upgraded to allow students to carry out more effective responsibility and learning process. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the impact of audio visual aids in teaching home economics in secondary schools using Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The research posed three research questions, which guided the study. Random sampling was used in the selection of schools. Eight schools were selected from secondary school students in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as well as fifteen Home economics teachers for study.Data collected through the questionnaire were analysed through percentage analysis techniques.
1.1 Background to the Study
Audio visual teaching and learning depicts the latest innovation and development in education delivery system. It offers flexibility in space and time teaching on-line involves use of the World Wide Web. An instructor has to develop a course syllabus, develop goals and objective, select quality textbooks and journal article readings, create learning exercises and develop quiz and examinations. The instructor should have assistance with all of the software required to deliver on-line courses. Some sites on the web offer photo essays, documents, articles and recordings. These provide raw materials with which you can fashion a focused and relevant assignment for discussion (Ko& Rosen, 2004). They further stated that discussion forums are essential for creating meaningful interactions among students and between Jegede (2005) described electronic learning as the presentation and delivery of the materials using the electronic media. Also Ajayi, (2005) defines e-learning and learning through electronic means such as via the web, internet or other multimedia materials like computer, projector, television, audio and audio visual cassette, radio disc etc, the learner whether for or near have easy access to quality learning materials have robust and unlimited interaction with instructional contents, facilitators and other learners and are given support and appropriate time, make reasonable and responsible contributions to the learning process.
Visual learning aids like pictures, drawings or dynamic video are designed to facilitate learning and help increase students’ academic performance. From the learning and instruction point of view, the effectiveness of the visual information is concerned with cognitive learning and retention. However, the performance criteria should be focused on the effect of the actual action than on the retention if the learning aids real applied to a procedural motor task. The utilization of learning aids in instructional process reflects back to ancient periods. This period is characterized by Greeks and Latin people, especially during early 150 BC when people were taught and learned things practically. Callahan (1988) states that, “Once upon a time when the mankind was young; reading and writing had not been invented, therefore men and women taught their children by means of very simple local tools.” It was an important technique which created the quality outcomes in learning and teaching processes, since the learners observed physically and practically on the learning aids related to the particular lesson or issue. For instance boys were taught hunting wild animals such as an elephant by using spears and arrows, while girls were taught on how to prepare food. Apart from that, parents taught their children about the World location by using local maps drawn on the ground, and religion was taught by using pictures drawn on the walls and caves. All these give us the picture on how the visual learning aids influence the process of instruction in Secondary Schools. Any kind of an instruction whether in public schools, private schools or informal education is an existing activity which is in need of enhancement of educational atmosphere particularly visual learning aids (Anderson, 2009).
In Nigeria, there is challenge of non-availability of audio visual even teachers cannot be blamed for this. Most schools lack the required funds and thereby finding it difficult to get the required audio visual aid. Failure of schools to use audio visual materials in the teaching of Home Economics may result to apathy among students in learning activities which definitely affects their academic performances in one way or the other. This study however examines the impact of audio visual aids in teaching home economics in secondary schools using Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Good educational policies are backed with well designed programs which for part of adequate political will on the part of government and educational institution authorities are ineffectively and inefficiently implemented. Thus has led to learners not being adequately exposed to those experiences that will guarantee the total development of their being. At present we leave in a global village. Around the globe the latest and most complex technology is the area of information and communication technology. The growth in on-line technology and its application in education have brought great transformation in the world. The use of audio visual aids will make teaching and learning more efficient and effective and result oriented by providing avenue for sharing idea and information. The level of development in any society is usually determined by the quality and quantity of knowledge in the various spheres of human activity available to and acquired by the citizens. Knowledge is acquired and sustained through efficient information and communication system based on the technology level attained, children in any country who fail to use and master new technologies would definitely lack behind. However, there are many constraints in delivering the ICT to the right people at the right time. In developing countries like Nigeria, there is frequently a shortage of qualified ICT teachers, and lack of fund. The rapid changes that have taken place all over the world pose a challenge to the educational sector. There is the need to enrich the present secondary schools which ICT program for effective teaching and process.
1.3 Research Questions
This research will be carried out to answer the following research questions:
i) What are the audio visual aid available for effective teaching and learning of Home Economics in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area?
ii) What are the impacts of audio visual aid in teaching Home Economics in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area?
iii) What are the challenges faced by secondary schools in using audio visual aid in Uyo Local Government Area?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to the impact of audio visual aids in teaching home economics in secondary schools using Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The specific objective included:
i) To investigate the audio visual aid available for effective teaching and learning of Home Economics in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
ii) To ascertain the impacts of audio visual aid in teaching Home Economics in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
iii) To assess the challenges faced by secondary schools in using audio visual aid in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The result of the study would be of immense benefits to the government. The results of the study would show the devices that are lacking in these institutions so that the government would supply them to the schools. Schools now will increasingly use instructional materials to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of administration. The quality of education will be raised since routine repetitive tasks can be automated with the use of audio visual infrastructure. Through equipping the schools with audio visual devices, the learners will have access to a wide range of information resources. This will also enable the teacher to manage a large class effectively and makes the tasks of teaching simplified.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study examines the impact of audio visual aids in teaching home economics in secondary schools using Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It will therefore be limited to the selected secondary school students within the Local Government.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The researcher was faced with the constraint of getting adequate information from students in the local government area due to the fact that most of them were not willing to reveal adequate information about their perception of the topics in the subject as some of them thought that the researcher might be seeing them as unserious students.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
Audio visual aid: training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc. used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes
Home economics: field of study that deals with the economics and management of the home and community.It deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live.
Secondary school: is the next step up from primary school. Secondary schools are often called high schools in the United States. In Britain, secondary schools may be public schools, grammar schools or comprehensive schools.