The Industrial Training is a planned and supervised training intervention best on a stated and specific learning and career objectives geared towards developing the occupational competencies of the participants. It is a programme required to be undertaken by all student of tertiary institution in Nigeria pursuing courses in specialized engineering, technical, business, applied sciences and applied arts (ITF 2004). This study however investigated the importance of Industrial Training practical in tertiary institutions in Nigeria using students of Lagos State University as a case study. The followings are the objectives of the subject: to analyse the impacts of industrial training practical on the students, to investigate the new work methods usually learnt by the students during their industrial trainings and to determine the challenges faced by the students during their industrial training programme.
1.1 Background to the Study
Industrial training practical is a skill development programme established by Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in 1973 and since then had its headquarters in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. It is meant to enable students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria acquire technical skills and experience for professional development in their course of study as it bridges the gap between theory and practice. It is therefore accepted in all Nigerian Tertiary institution s of learning. It forms academic requirement in various degree programmes. It is a three credit unit course, which must be met by students before graduation. It is aimed at exposing and preparing students in Tertiary institution s of learning in the country for the industrial work situations which they are to meet after graduation.
Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme is also an effort to bridge the existing gap between theory and practice and expose students to necessary skills for smooth transition from the classroom to the world of work. It helps students in acquiring vocational, technical skills and experience for professional and career advancement. Before the inception of the Scheme, there was a growing concern among Nigerian industrialists that graduates of institutions of higher learning lacked adequate practical background experience necessary for employment. Employers are of the opinion that the theoretical education acquiredinTertiary institution s cannot onlysatisfy the needs of the economy. It was against this background that the Fund during its formative years, introduced IT TRAINING to provide students with the opportunity of exposure to handle equipment and machinery in Industry(ITF and UNIJOS, 2011).
Industrial training practical is a form of industrial internship programme among students of Tertiary institution s of learning. Mafe (2009) stated that all stakeholders are involved in the operation of IT TRAINING but that students are the key actors that are directly involved in its implementation. Mafe (2010) citing Crag (1987) stated that, IT TRAINING is generic because it cuts across more than 70programmes in the universities, over 50programmes in the polytechnics and about 15programmes in the colleges of education. Students that usually go for industrial training program or IT TRAINING in the tertiary institutions in Nigeriaare Engineering, Vocational, Technological, Agricultural science, Forestry, Industrial Chemistry, Microbiology, Geology and Mineral Science, Physics and Mineral Science, Plant and Environmental Biology, Computer Science, Tourism and Hospitality, Business Education, Industrial Engineering, Enterprise Creation and Management, Computer Engineeringand related courses in Tertiary institution s of learning.
The experiences of students through this program is a good tool that helps in certain basic aspects of the students fullest development in the practical and Technological course that makes them to acquire the necessary skills. Many students do not possess the relevant and employable skills needed by employers; students are being faced with the problem of acquiring the needed practical knowledge but the introduction of Industrial Training has helped nullify this. Thereby, making the students to imagine things that are been taught. But the introduction of this IT programme has helped students to perform well, especially in getting direct contact with some of the new students that have been taught theoretically in school. The IT TRAINING objectives is to help students to find solution to the problem of unemployment, to take their steps in the journey through their life career with pleasure, confidence, and to prepare students for the world. To cap it all, students who have benefited from IT TRAINING opportunities pass on to the next level and are ready to accept any challenges of learning skills in their career. This study will however examine the importance of Industrial Training practical in tertiary institutions in Nigeria using students of Lagos State University as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is no doubt that Industrial Training is a laudable skills development programme, geared towards bridging the gap between theories learnt in the class and the actual practice. However, in spite of the importance of Industrial Training in professional development of students, the scheme has been hampered by the challenges such as non-acceptance of students by some employers, non-relevance of places of training, inadequate supervision of students by some institutions, inadequate Industrial Training orientation programmes. Lack of finance for the smooth running of the scheme is also a challenge facing Industrial Training. It is against this backdrop that this study aimed to examine the importance of Industrial Training practical in tertiary institutions in Nigeria using students of Lagos State University as a case study.
1.3 Research Questions
This research will be carried out to answer the following research questions:
i) What are the impacts of industrial training practical on the students?
ii) What the new work methods usually learnt by the students during their industrial trainings?
iii) What are the challenges faced by the students during their industrial training programme?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study was to examine the importance of Industrial Training practical in tertiary institutions in Nigeria using students of Lagos State University as a case study.The specific objective included:
i) To analyse the impacts of industrial training practical on the students.
ii) To investigate the new work methods usually learnt by the students during their industrial trainings.
iii) To determine the challenges faced by the students during their industrial training programme.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
To guide the investigation of the issue raised in the problem definition, it is hypothesized that:
i) There is no significant correlation between industrial training programme and the practical knowledge acquired by the students.
ii) There is no significant difference between industrial training and the students’ life after school.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study of the importance of Industrial Training practical in tertiary institutions in Nigeria will help the students to achieve the practical aspect of learning, which will help them to perfect in the theoretical training. The industrial training will help the students to be more committed to the programme instead of relaxing and forge industrial training letters from any company, since they have known the importance of the programme. It helps the Industrial Training workers to be more committed to their work by making it compulsory for the students to acquire the necessary practical knowledge and experience required from them during the training period. The study in this training will help students to be cost conscious when dealing with customers or when using companies stationeries in their work place.The study will also help to create awareness to the public especially government establishments on the importance of the training so that the industrial workers will be accepted.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is on the importance of Industrial Training practical in tertiary institutions using the Lagos State University students as a case study. It focused on the aim and objective of industrial training scheme towards the students of Lagos State University.
1.8 Limitation of the study
The study was faced with challenge time and financial constraints. The time frame for this study was short and therefore did not allow the use of many analytical techniques and expansion of the scope. While financial constraint occurred as a result of lack of funds by the researcher to adequately finance the project as desired. g this research was therefore a big task. There was nothing like research grant to aid self-sponsored study.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
Industrial training:refers to a program which aims to provide supervised practical training within a specified timeframe. This training can be carried out either in government organisations or in the private sector.
Tertiary Institutions:institutions that teach specific capacities of higher learning such as colleges, technical training institutes, community colleges, nursing schools, research laboratories, centers of excellence, and distance learning centers.
ITF (2006).Proceedings and Resolutions of the 10 Biennial IT TRAINING National Conference
July, 2006. Industrial Training Fund University of Jos: An evaluation of the impact of Student Industrial Training Fund on technical skill development in Nigeria Jos, June 2011
Mafe, O. A. T. (2009). Guide to Successful Participation in IT TRAINING. Panaf Publishing Inc.,
Abuja and Lagos
Mafe, O.A.T. (2010.) Effectiveness of IT TRAINING with respect to chemical engineering; Paper
presented at the Workshop on “Achieving the Necessary Professional Standards in Chemical Engineering in our Universities” University of Lagos