The growing need for a strong, self reliant, self-independence and self-employed individuals in the nation and a great dynamic economy in Nigeria brought a full recognition to Home economics as one of the prevocational subjects that must be offered by all students in the Junior Secondary School (JSS).This research work assesses the impact of teaching aids for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was used in selecting samples who are offering Home Economics subject in the four selected secondary schools in the state. The questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using mean and frequency counts.
1.1 Background to the Study
Essentially, home economics is meant to equip learners with skills and aptitudes to maximally enhance family life through the optimal utilization of its human and material resources. Home economics is one of the vocational subjects taught at secondary schoolsin the Nigerian educational system as a compulsory part of the curriculum. The Nigerian government, at all levels has over the years placed enormous emphasis on teaching aids is shaping efforts and strategies aimed at improving students standard of learning in the country but no one seems to capture the real factors as to why the standard of education in country still remain very low. Teaching aids refers to tools like an object (such as a book, picture, or map) or device (such as a DVD or computer) used by teachers to help learners improve reading, learning and other skills needed for academic excellence.In Nigeria today, many schools cannot boast of teaching aids and therefore government should endeavor to make education her priority to help improve our standard of learning by providing the required teaching aids to schools.
Instructional materials or teaching aids are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. Teaching aids make learning more appealing and interesting. It also gives room for the students to participate actively in the class and helps the teachers to teach effectively. Ibeneme (2000) defined teaching aids as those materials used for practical and demonstration in the class situation by students and teachers. In addition, Obanya (2004) asserted that several studies carried out in some areas in Nigeria indicated that the results of Senior School Certificate Examinations were completely bad in nearly all subjects offered by the students. He stressed further that only about 10% of candidates ‘meaningfully passed’ the examination. Abdu-Raheem (2011) asserted that non availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of students in schools. Ahmed (2003) confirmed thatteaching and learning take place under most un-conducive environments in most secondary schools in Nigeria and these schools lack manyessential materials for academic excellence. Eniayewu (2005) posited that it is very important to use teaching aids for instructional delivery to make students acquire more knowledge and to promote academic standard.
Afolabi and Adeleke (2010) identified non-availability, inadequacy and non utilization of learning materials as a result of teacher’s poor knowledge as factors responsible for the use of lecture method. They recommended that students, teachers, parents, Parents/Teacher Association, government and philanthropists should be involved in improvising instructional materials for the teaching and learning in schools. Therefore, Ogbondah (2008) advocated for teachers’ resourcefulness and as well encouraged them to search for necessary teaching aids through local means to complement the standard ones that are available to make their teaching to be more effective. Jekayinfa (2012) also identified the importance of improvisation of instructional materials as making learning concrete and real, substitutesone thing for another, allows the students to participate in the production of materials, economical and more teacher-student resource oriented. Abdu-Raheem (2014) submitted that improvisation of locally made teaching aids could assist to improve quality of graduates turn out from schools and standard of education generally. Abdu-Raheem and Oluwagbohunmi (2015) also corroborated the idea that resourceful and skilful teachers should improvise necessary instructional materials to promote academic standard in Nigerian schools. This study will therefore examine the impact of teaching aids for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in senior secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Home economics education subjects ought to attract many students because of its laudable importance but reverse has been the case. The reason for this probably is due to people’s perception that it does not require specialized kind of training. People are ignorant of the importance of the vocational subjects which could help males and female students receive formation and to be able to work solution to problems. Also, it enables the students to acquire skills, abilities needed for independent life.
One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of secondary school students in the examinations. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owing to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery. (Afolabi, 2009). This study therefore finds it worthy to assess the impact of teaching aids for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.3 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
i) What are the impacts of teaching aids/instructional materials on the academic performance of students in Home economics?
ii) What are the learning aids available for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in secondary schools?
iii) What are the challenges facing the use of teaching aids/instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in secondary schools?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to assess the impact of teaching aids for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria. The specific objective included:
i) To ascertain the impacts of teaching aids/instructional materials on the academic performance of students in Home economics.
ii) To inquire the learning aids available for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in secondary schools.
iii) To survey the challenges facing the use of teaching aids/instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in secondary schools.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The research hypotheses to be tested include:
i) there is a significant relationship between the use of teaching aids and effective learning of Home economics by the students in secondary schools
ii) there is a significant correlation between the use of teaching aids and effective teaching of Home economics by the teachers in secondary schools
1.6 Significance of the Study
The result of the study would be of immense benefits to the government. The results of the study would show the devices that are lacking in these institutions so that the government would supply them to the schools. Schools now will increasingly use teaching aids/instructional materials to improve the efficiency of administration. Through equipping the schools with laboratories, the learners will have access to a wide range of information resources. This will also enable the teachers to teach effectively and makes the tasks of teaching simplified.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study on assessing the impact of teaching aids for effective teaching and learning of Home economics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria. The samples for this study shall be selected from four secondary schools in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
1.8 Limitation of the study
The only constraint encountered by the researcher was finance. This limited the researcher to print just one hundred and sixty questionnaires as against the proposed two hundred and fifty questionnaires. The researcher, however, came up with findings that would be worth making reference to in future and also contribute to the existing literature.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
Academic Performance: Scores attained in form one end of year examination.
Home economics:field of study that deals with the economicsand management of the home and community.It deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live.
Learning: is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential change in synthesizing information, depth of the knowledge, attitude or behavior relative to the type and range of experience.
Secondary school:is the next step up from primary school. Secondaryschools are often called high schools in the United States. In Britain, secondary schools may be public schools, grammar schools or comprehensive schools.
Teaching: the process of attending to people’s needs experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things.