This study examined the analytical study of senior secondary students’ performance in home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It is believed that various factors affect the secondary school students in this Local Government Area to performance well in this subject. The factors include: that change of school, family break up, teacher absence, parent illness and death of a family member, student’s illness, learning disability caused by visual or hearing impairment and student’s attitude towards learning as causes of poor academic performance.The survey however, employed a field research design in carrying out this study. Questionnaires were distributed to the (SMEs) in this area and SPSS was used to analyse the data.
1.1 Background to the Study
There are many factors that affecting the performance of students in education attainment and this is what has prompted the current study. In spite of the complex factors influencing students’ achievement, various studies are pointing to the evidence that institutional factors are associated with academic performance not only in home economics alone but also in other subjects. Home economics is a subject needed by every person irrespective of their profession. For anyone to be more productive, self-reliant, self-independent and self-employed, the knowledge of home economics is important. Home Economics education, which is one of the arms of vocational and technical education, is a multi-disciplinary subject that embraces a very large area and draws from other disciplines such as arts and sciences in solving physical, social, economic and political problems of families, individuals and society (Suara and Dairo 1997). It is therefore, a very comprehensive and all embracing discipline whose contributions to humanity and politics are unquantifiable.
However, students’ performance in the subject has not been encouraging especially at the secondary school level. Secondary school level is the intermediary level between the basic and tertiary level where systematic and organized education is offered. It is believed that at this level of education, desired attitude, skill and knowledge could be obtained by the recipients. Academic performance according to Eze, Ezenwafor and Obidile (2016) is the outcome of students’ effort in examinations. It was observed from the literature that students’ academic performance is determined by a number of factors. Several studies have revealed the various factors that are responsible for students’ academic performance (both negatively and positively). It was however revealed by Browny&Sunniya, (2002) that change of school, family break up, teacher absence, parent illness and death of a family member, student’s illness, learning disability caused by visual or hearing impairment and student’s attitude towards learning as causes of poor academic performance.
Others include shortage of well-trained teachers, inadequacy of teaching facilities, lack of funds to purchase necessary equipment, poor quality textbooks, large classes, poorly motivated teachers, lack of laboratories and libraries, poorly coordinated supervisory activities, interference of the school system by the civil service, incessant transfers of teachers and principals and automatic promotion of pupils (Vundla, 2012). Mbugua, Kibet, Muthaa and Nkonke (2012) outlined the factors as under staffing, inadequate teaching and learning materials, lack of motivation and poor attitude by both teachers and students as factors influencing academic performance of students.Igwe and Ikatule (2011) attributed poor academic performance of students to deficiency in teaching method(s) used by teachers. According to Tshabalala and Ncube (2013) lack of materials, bad teacher behavior, poor grounding in the subject area at lower levels, poor teaching methods as well as fear of the subject are factors affecting academic performance of students. Enu, Agyman and Nkum (2015) listed the causes of academic performance to include inadequate teaching and learning materials, method of instruction, teachers and students’ self-motivation.
Consequently, academic performances of students in home economics are usually due to related factors such as negative attitude of students towards home economics as a difficult subject, students’ academic aptitude, past and present academic performances, insufficient effort and poor motivation. Also teachers’ qualification and experience affect academic performance of students in home economics. Poor application of teaching methods, lack of fund, inadequate teaching experience,lack of teaching aids, lack of qualified teachers and wrong methods of teaching could influence students’ interest in home economics, unavailability of current text-books in home economics as one of the causes of poor academic performance of students in home economics. This study therefore sought to investigate the analytical study of senior secondary students’ performance in home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There have been significant interests in the high rate of failure in Home economics in secondary schools shows that teaching and learning in these subjectshave been teacher centred instead of student-centred. Educators are seeking for alternative ways to teach home economics so as to change the situation. The problem is how inquiry method of teaching can improve students’ academic achievement in Home economics in secondary schools.
However, home economics education subjects ought to attract many students because of its laudable importance but reverse has been the case. the reasons for this probably is due to people’s perception that it does not require specialized kind of training. The students have the feeling that even if one is at home at the requite skills needs to learn have to cook, farm, etc can be acquired without formal training. People are ignorant of the importance of the vocational subjects which could help males and female students receive formation and to be able to work solution to problems. Also, it enables the students to acquire skills, abilities essential for independent life met up with personal and family needs more especially in this economic difficulties. This will focus on the analytical study of senior secondary students’ performance in home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.
1.3 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
i) What is the prevalence of senior secondary students’ performance in home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area?
ii) What are the attitudes of senior secondary students’ performance towards home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area?
iii) What are the attitudes of teachers toward effective teaching of home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study was to examine the analytical study of senior secondary students’ performance in home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. The specific objective included:
i) To examine the prevalence of senior secondary students’ performance in home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area
ii) To investigate the attitudes of senior secondary students’ performance towards home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area
iii) To assess out the attitudes of teachers toward effective teaching of home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The research hypotheses to be tested include:
i) There is no significant relationship between the attitude of students towards home economics and academic performance.
ii) There is no significant correlation between the attitudes of teachers toward teaching home economics and academic performance of students
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant because the home economics as a subject plays an important role in skill, vocational and technical development of students to enable them stand on their own. Home economics has an extremely important place in our educational system today. No other academic discipline incorporates in its curriculum as many pertinent life skills that will help students succeed independent of their chosen career paths. The knowledge obtained through home economics will prove valuable throughout the lifespan. Therefore it will be of great benefit to students, teachers, parents and guardians. It will as well contribute to body of knowledge in the areas of home economics, food and nutrition.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focused on the analytical study of senior secondary students’ performance in home economics from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Therefore, it shall be limited to only secondary school students who have offered this subject in their respective schools from the year 2007-2010 in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation of the study
Time constraint was the major challenge of this study. The researcher was simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. This consequently cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
Academic Performance: Scores attained in form one end of year examination.
Analytic:the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.
Home economics:field of study that deals with the economics and management of the home and community.It deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live.
Secondary school:is the next step up from primary school. Secondaryschools are often called high schools in the United States. In Britain, secondaryschools may be public schools, grammar schools or comprehensive schools
Teachers: persons who help others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone
Browny, E. B. &Sunniya, S. L. (2002). Social-emotional facts affecting achievement
outcomes using disadvantaged students: Closing the achievement gap. Educational Psychology, 15, 28-36.
Enu, J, Agyman, O. K., &Nkum D. (2015). Factors influencing students’ mathematics
performance in some selected colleges of education in Ghana. International Journal of Education Learning and Development, 3(3), 68-74.
Eze, Ezenwafor&Obidile (2016). Effects of problem-based teaching method on students
academic performance and retention in financial accounting in technical colleges in Anambra State. Online Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(6A), 634-639.
Igwe, A. U. &Ikatule, O. R. (2011). Effects of computer tutorial and drill (CTD) on senior
secondary school students’ achievement in basic electronics in Lagos State. Proceedings of Nigerian Association of Teachers of Technology.Umunze, 108-119.
Mbugua, Z. K., Kibet, K., G., Muthaa, G. M. &Nkonke, G. R. (2012). Factors contributing to
students’ poor performance in Mathematics at Kenya certificate of secondary education in Kenya: A Case of Baringo County, Kenya. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(6), 5-10.
Suara, J.S &Daira, A.M (1997).Home economics methodology.Kaduna: Mafolayomi Press
Tshabalala, T. &Ncube, A. C. (2013). Causes of poor performance of ordinary level pupils in
mathematics in rural secondary schools in Nkayi District. Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, 1(1), 4-14.
Vundla, B. (2012). School Curriculum. Pretoria: North.