1.1 Background to the Study
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) was launched in Nigeria in 1999 by the former president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo and passed into law in 2004. The introduction of the UBE in Nigeria is an offshoot of the world conference on Education for All (EFA) held in Jomtien, Thailand from 5th to 9th March 1990. The broad aims of the basic education is to enable the learners to acquire knowledge, skills and attitude that will assist them to live meaningful and fulfilling lives, contribute to the development of the society, derive maximum social, economic and cultural benefits from the society and discharge their civic responsibility competently. These aims suggest that the universal basic education is all embracing, learners-oriented and problem solving- centred. The specific objectives of the Universal Basic Education as articulated by the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2013) include among others, the provision of compulsory free and universal basic education for every Nigerian child of school age and ensuring the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, Therefore, this study is significant among the SMEs in Kenya to comprehend the factors affecting SMEs ICT adoption for performance. The various studies have revealed these factors as: ICT Services, ICT Infrastructure, ICT User skills, Management support and Government policy (Makau, Wawire and Ofafa, 2013; Alam and Noor, 2009; Raravi, 2014; Kabanda, 2011) numeracy, communicative and life skills as well as the ethical, moral, security and civic values needed for the laying of a solid foundation for life-long learning.
To achieve these laudable objectives, basic education in Nigeria needs well trained and dedicated teachers to implement the curriculum and assure quality service delivery. It is not just enough to recruit teachers for the programme, but to provide continuous in-service programme or development programmes for the teachers to update their knowledge, skills and competence for them to function effectively and efficiently. Teachers’ professional development is planned organizational activities aimed at improving and increasing teachers’ skill, knowledge, concept, attitudes and behaviour to enable them meet the demands of the teaching job (Akpan, 1999). It focuses on improving the conceptual skill –intellectual and abilities needed to do a better job. Adeogun (2006) states that teachers’ development programmes are associated with the general improvement of teachers in terms of behaviour, attitudes, skills, knowledge, and perception and in the performance of their duties. Alabi (2002) maintains that the immediate aim of staff development is to improve the performance of those with teaching and management responsibilities, while the ultimate aim is improvement of teaching and learning processes. Thus, the Nigerian teachers in basic educational institutions should be encouraged to attend training programmes for capacity building and development. These can be achieved by exposing them to in-service training, such as induction programmes, ICT training, workshops, conferences, seminars and refresher courses, particularly for nonprofessional teachers employed to teach in basic schools.
The quality of any educational system depends to a great extent on the quality of teachers. Teachers are the most important component of any educational system because they are the people to shape the behaviour, thinking and attitude of the pupils/students in the teaching/learning situation. The quality of teachers determines the quality of teaching and knowledge imparted to the students and the quality of learning outcomes. If quality universal basic education is to be achieved, government and agencies involved in the management of UBE must make adequate provision for staff development programmes. Quality education is that type of education that is relevant to the needs of the learners and the needs of the society. It is the education that produces the complete person, a well-educated wholesome individual that is intellectually, morally, physically, emotionally and socially developed. Thus, quality education should be education that inculcate in the learner’s dignity of labour, respect, ethical value, religious tolerance, self-reliance political stability, security, quality leadership and industrial harmony (Majasan, 1998). Quality basic education is education that empowers the learners with relevant skills, knowledge, ideas, values and attitudes needed for the person to make informed decisions and live a self-sustaining life. To ensure quality universal basic education in Nigeria we need to train and retrain our teachers. In this era of knowledge explosion as a result of modern technologies, particularly computer and ICT, it becomes pertinent that teachers be provided with opportunities to update and improve their knowledge and skills through teacher development programmes. Akpan (1999) in his study reported that teacher retraining programmes apart from developing in the teacher, self-confidence, it also improves upon the teachers’ teaching method, class control, supervision of students, and knowledge of subject matter and use of instructional materials. These enhance teaching effectiveness and quality outcomes.
Information and communication technology (ICT) training is another important aspect of teacher development programme. Teachers need ICT training to improve upon their job efficacy. In this period of knowledge driven society, teachers need to acquire sound knowledge on how to use ICT tools to enhance quality teaching and learning in schools. Seminars, conferences and workshops expose teachers to new teaching strategies and the use of modern instructional aids in teaching and learning. The curriculum of universal basic education is value-loaded and therefore requires teachers with the requisite expertise for effective curriculum content delivery and exposure of the learners to appropriate learning experiences. Obi (2000) in his study found that teachers’ development programmes improve them both academically and professionally and apart from helping them to update their knowledge, it serves as a motivating factor for teacher efficiency.
Lagos state government’s commitment to promote quality basic education has been demonstrated in the provision of various development programmes for teachers. For example, in the first quarter of 2014, the state government organized an induction programme for 1775 teachers in the employ of the state government. According to Oladunjoye (2014), the aim of the induction programme was to provide qualitative education and to further overcome the challenges facing the education sector. She reiterated that training and retraining of teachers is a key factor to the development of education and to raise the standard of education for the teachers in order to add value to the teaching profession for the students to excel in both internal and external examinations. In addition to the various development programmes organized for teachers in Lagos state, the government also initiated the Eko Education project to boost standard and quality education. The project assists in providing infrastructural and instructional facilities to schools including the establishment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) centres in schools. This enhances teachers’ and students’ ICT competence for quality teaching and learning in schools. Although a lot of studies have been done on the impact of teachers’ development programmes on teachers’ attitude to work, productivity and effectiveness in the western world and in Nigeria (Akpan, 1999; Adeyemi 2007& Jeffrey, 2014), very little or no empirical studies have been carried out on the present study in Nigeria and particularly in Lagos State. It is against this background that the seeks to investigate training and retraining of teachers for improving quality of teaching among senior secondary school teachers in Lagos state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers are crucial inputs of any educational system because they have the command of the knowledge and skills to be imparted to the learners. Hence, the quality of teachers determines to a great extent the quality of teaching and learning outcomes. Since the inception of UBE in Lagos state, the government has put in place various development programmes for teachers in order to enhance quality basic education. Such programmes include among others in-service training, ICT training, seminars, workshops and induction programmes for teachers. However, despite government effort and investment in teacher development programmes, the quality of UBE does not improve to any appreciable level. Some educators blame this on ineffective management of the programme by those concern, while others attribute it to the poor attitude of some teachers toward the programme and poor work behaviours.
1.3 Research Objectives
The general objective or main objective of this study is to investigate training and retraining of teachers for improving quality of teaching among senior secondary school teachers in Lagos state. The specific objectives are:
- To examine the relationship between training and retraining programme and teachers’ pedagogical skills in secondary schools.
- To ascertain the relationship training and retraining of teachers and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
- To determine the prevalence of training and retraining of teaching among senior secondary school teachers in Lagos state
1.4 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
- What is the relationship between training and retraining programme and teachers’ pedagogical skills in secondary schools?
- What is the relationship training and retraining of teachers and academic performance of students in secondary schools?
- What is the prevalence of training and retraining of teaching among senior secondary school teachers in Lagos state?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were postulated to guide the conduct of this study;
i) There is no significant relationship between training and retraining programme and teacher improved pedagogical skills in secondary schools.
ii) There is no significant correlation between training and retraining of teachers and high academic performance of students in secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The research study shall be significant in a number of ways.
In the first place, it is understood that investigation into this broad area of study will expose so many things hitherto dominant facts and which previous researchers in this field has failed to investigated. This analysis will therefore help in the small way to a better understanding of training and retraining of teachers especially as it’s relate to teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Lagos State. Secondly, the utilization of the basic tenets of this research study in general and the body of facts in particular will to a very far extent enhance a government’s efforts towards ensuring a systematic re-training programmes for teachers currently in secondary schools across the country in general. It will also add inputs to government efforts in ensuring sound more effective and efficient teachers that will improve the falling standard of education in the society as well as contribute to high academic performance of students in secondary schools which variably will be leaders in different capacities of human endeavors. Furthermore, the study will assist policy makers and educational planners to fashioning a more variable, teaching and learning environment and an educational system that will enable the country to free the currently challenge of globalization with its emphasis on professionalism and increase productivity.
Finally, the study will be beneficial to students and researchers a like as it will contribute to the existing literature in order to add to the body of knowledge in this field, and to the researchers, it will provide inputs into their studies and hence increase their knowledge.
1.7 Scope of the Study
For the purpose of the study the researcher has limited the study to secondary schools in Ikeja metropolis of Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Generally, every research study like all other investigation both public and private is often bedecked with numerous constraints. This particularly work is not an exemption, thus many administrative bottle necks posed severe threat to the continuity of the study. The geographical distance between the various schools in the area of the research constituted serious transportation problem. The study has been inheritably hindered by the lean purse and economic depression that bite seriously on the researchers.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
In-service Training: According to the United State of America Department of Education (1985) in service training is a system of systematized activities promoted and directed by the school system that contribute to the professional or occupational growth and competence of staff members during the time of their service to the school system.
Productivity: Productivity is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is a measure of the efficiency of production to measure of output. A measure of the efficiency of a person in converting input into useful outputs. In more common meaning, it refers to producing good result.
School Teacher: One whose profession or occupation is teaching, school teacher is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults). The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education.