This research investigated the Place of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in public secondary schools in Makurdi metropolis. The study had five research questions and two hypotheses. Through Questionnaires were administered to both teachers and students. The findings showed that 54.5% of the total facilities were available and 100% response indicated that most of the facilities available were not put to use. The hypothesis tested using t-test on the facilities available proved that there is no significant difference in terms of availability of facilities in both government and private secondary schools. The hypothesis went forward to explain that there is no significant difference in terms of utilization of the few ones that were available. Both government and private secondary schools admitted that teaching and learning are very interesting with the use of ICT thus represented 100%. On the problems confronting the use of ICT, the result showed that inadequate time allocation for classroom teaching of ICT is a problem, the study recommended that training should be given to teachers on ICT facility usage, the problem of shortage of man power in ICT should be addressed.





1.1   Background of the Study

Information and communication technology (I C T) has continued to play a leading role in the development of all nations; it has been the basic tool in realization of most nations’ scientific and technological aspirations. New concepts, ideas and products have been advanced and are currently transforming not only our industries and businesses but every aspect of life. However, for any nation to achieve technological advancement there must be an effective teaching and learning using effective ICT in the school system.

According to Gusen (1991), there is a great significant improvement in our lives now a days as a result of new technological advancement, and that much can still be achieved depending entirely on the speed with which we adapt to this new technology.

Today many countries that use ICT fully, example of china, have seen its importance and have accepted same as a major element of national and economic development. This accounts for why developed countries make use of ICT to achieve everything including   machinery, banking, schooling, industrialization, e.t.c. It has therefore become very important that Nigeria as a nation should join in the trend of using ICT in our school to the fullest

Previous research by Fullan (1991) and others has shown that the most effective way to bring about the adoption of an innovation in schools is to engage the whole school in a dramatic process of planning a change. This means that all teachers involved in the decision to adopt ICT in the school are supportive of any individual teacher going on a course and willing to learn from their new skills when they return. If the school, particularly the head teachers are not committed to adopting Change. But currently if one teacher goes on a course, the rest of the school sets up antibodies to any new ideas which the teacher brings back into the school. Such antibodies and non acceptance of these new ideas therefore quickly discourages the enthusiasm is the new trainee who also graded drop the new knowledge.

It is in realization of the need for ICT that the national policies on education (1988) aim at inculcating computer literacy skills in to learning from primary through tertiary institution. There are convincing evidence that children learn more efficiently using ICT and that its use does motivate pupils who have been disillusioned with education (Mellevete et al 1994: Walson, 1999) as cited in Cox (1999).

It helps teachers to learn from a range of interpretations of “good practice’’ and to examined all aspects of these contexts and the processes developed (Tearl, P) on  ICT is useful in reducing problems in areas of assessing student, computer can be used to compute score and performances of students.

Despite the benefits derivable from ICT, this country’s desire for rapid national and economic development hardly be realized without a significant contribution of ICT in teaching and learning in secondary schools. According to Jagede (2002), the uptake of ICT by our societies is slow:­ Idachaba (2003), reported problem such as power outages and inadequate funding as a major issues affecting full ICT operation in our country. In a study of educational changes in America, Canada and the UK, Fullan (1991) found one of the most fundamental problems in education reform to be that people do not have clear coherent reasons for educational change in terms of what it is and how to proceed. In the same way many are yet to know the status/place and importance of ICT in the educational sector. In consideration of all the aforementioned advantages of ICT and the fact that the world is moving at a jet speed as a result of advancement in science and technology. The researcher finds it highly necessary to find out how much of those ICT advantages have been realized in our public secondary schools in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State.

1.2 Statement of Problem

            The importance of ICT in education includes its ability to enhance and extend teaching and learning with an associated commitment and flexible strategy to achieve the purpose of learning.

            There are many studies which have shown that in spite of its enormous importance to teaching and learning, schools are yet to adopt its usage in their educational programs. This research work is therefore aimed at surveying the place of ICT in educational programs of public secondary schools in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State. 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

            The purpose of this study is to access the place of ICT in Public Secondary Schools in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State.

  1. To assess the availability of ICT facilities in some public Secondary School in Makurdi Local Government Area.
  2. To determine the level of utilization of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Makurdi Local Government Area.
  3. What characteristic of a school may be associated with “successful implementation of ICT across the whole school for teaching and learning?
  4. To find out the problems that confront the effective utilization of ICT facilities in public secondary school of Makurdi Local Government Area
  5. To determine the ICT literacy level of staff in public secondary schools in Makurdi Local Government Area

1.4 Research Questions  

        i.            What types of ICT facilities do the public secondary schools in Makurdi local government area have?

      ii.            What level of utilization of ICT facility in secondary school?

    iii.            What problems confronting the effective utilization of ICT facilities?

    iv.            What are the characteristic associated with the successful implementation of the ICT facilities?

      v.            Are the staffs or teachers in secondary school ICT literate 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

            The following hypothesis has been formulated to be tested in this study.

        i.            There is no significant difference in the availability of ITC between government secondary school and Private Secondary School.

      ii.            There is no significant difference in the level of utilization of ICT facilities between Government Secondary Schools and Private Secondary Schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study 

            The findings of this study will be of beneficial, importance to the following category of reasons. The suggestion that may come out of this study will hopeful help to create awareness among educational administrators curriculum planners, teachers and students on the need and values of the use of ICT in teaching and learning in our schools.

            The finding will helps give meaningful suggestions to the government on how to enact laws or policy that would help encourage the use of ICT and perhaps give them an insight on the need for them to equip or enhance schools with ICT facilities/equipments.

            It will help the teachers to see that there is a growing body of evidences which suggest that the use of ICT can indeed help raise the standards and enhance learning.

            To the students, it help their lessons more understood, understanding, easier and more of fun for them.

            It will serve as resource materials for further research work on the plate/status of ICT in education.

To help take the use of ICT very seriously at tertiary institutions.

        i.            The study will help reveal the problems that confront the effective utilization of ICT materials in education programs and ways of solving these problems.

      ii.            To the teachers, they will see the need to be ICT literate and also see the benefits they stand to achieve from its usage.

    iii.            It will be of benefit to other institution planning to introduce ICT in teaching and learning in education programs and to those who have it will stimulate various school-based measures of sustaining it.

1.7 Scope and Delimitations of the Study

            The study is limited to education in public secondary schools in Makurdi local government area of Benue state.

        i.            The study will assess the availability of ICT materials and the level of utilizations

      ii.            It will also consider the ICT literacy of secondary school in Makurdi L.G.A

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms  

Information: This is data, knowledge, facts giving passed on, received, heard or discovered.

Communication: The exchange of information between people example by means of talking, writing or using a common system of signs or behavior. It is also sense of mutual understanding and sympathy.

Technology: It is the human purposeful activity and or the study, development, and application of device, machines, and technique for manufacturing and productive processes. It is summaries by saying that technology is an application of scientific knowledge.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Is a design, study and use of process representing physical, hypothetical or human relationship employing collection creation, storing retrieving, manipulating, presentation, sending and receiving of information.

            Ozoji (2003) defines information and community technology as handling and processing of information etc for use by means of electronic and communication device such as computers, cameras, telephone etc.

The terms (ICT) is also use to refers to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer network through a single cabling or link system

ICT in education: can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education the delivery of quality learning and teaching teacher’s professional development and make efficient education management’s governance and administration.