1.1 Background to the Study
The main impact of education in the society is the provision of knowledge that will integrate individuals and make them to be more meaningful individuals in the society who are capable of solving their problems. Qualified teachers have been seen as an effective instrument towards achieving this effective teaching. It is pertinent to mention here that ineffective and poor teaching in schools in Kaduna State and in Nigeria as a whole has continued to cause some havoc by shattering the hope and aspiration of some students, especially the ambitious ones. According to the National Policy on Education (2004), it demands that, the minimum acceptable qualification for teaching should be the National Certificate of Education (NCE). Up from the previous minimum of teachers certificate (Grade II), University graduates in disciplines other than education intending to make career out of teaching are required to obtain a Post-graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE).
Many teachers in sub- Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, are not able to apply modern information technologies in teaching due to computer illiteracy hence they mostly rely on lecture method of teaching (Eboutou et al., 1998; Haambokoma, 2002). Failure to expose learners to hands- on experiences has resulted in their low academic performance especially in the subjects like Mathematics, Basic Science, English, Basic Technology and Agriculture. A study by Adeogun (2001) found that the quality of any education system depends on the quality of teachers. Review of related literature indicates that the most important school based determining factor of students’ achievement is the teacher quality (Rivkin et al., 2005; Aaronson et al., 2007; Harris and Sass, 2008). Therefore, there is need to assess the characteristics of the primary school teachers in terms of qualification, experience and teaching methodology in order to ensure quality of education given to the pupils. The teachers should be in-serviced where gaps are identified to enable them to cope with the requirements of the dynamic school curriculum (Murunga et al., 2013).
Ebietomiye (2009) noted that the success of any human endeavour especially in the field of teaching is closely related to the quality of personnel who perform the tasks in the organization. Hence, the need to recruit and utilize professionally qualified teachers in enhancing good performance in primary School education is essential. Effective teaching is enhanced by well-trained and qualified teachers. The word “teacher” crudely connotes undifferentiated meaning to the extent that any individual that transmits ideas of whatever nature that cause a change or influence the behavioural pattern of the recipient is called a “teacher”. In a strict professional sense, Orstein (2005) sees a teacher as someone that must be professionally trained in a teachers’ training institution or faculty of education in the university, at the end of which he/she is certified to teach and is actually engaged in teaching. Ebietomiye (2009) corroborated this fact on who a professional teacher is. The implication is that, for a qualitative learning and improved academic performance to be ascertained, a qualitative teacher is imperative.
Government, guardians, educators, parents and society at large have been found to be constantly interested in the academic performance of their pupils (Lydiah and Nasongo, 2009). According to Adeyemi (2010), teachers play an important role in determining the pupils’ academic performance. There has never been a consensus by researchers on the particular teacher’s factors that influence students’ academic achievement (Rivkin et al., 2005). Study by Njeru and Orodho, (2003) revealed that teachers’ experience and educational qualifications have a significant influence on students’ academic achievement. When conducting research on factors contributing to under achievement of Zambian female students in OLevel Physics examinations, Maguswi (2011) found that lack of qualified teachers of Physics had a significant contribution. Moreover, a study done by Adaramola and Obomanu (2011) in Nigeria found that availability of unqualified teachers led to consistent poor performance of students in most science related subjects.
Orstein (2005) noted that to be a teacher, one must be vested with the objective and skill of teaching acquired through teachers’ institutions and through years of on the- job experience. It is therefore imperative that for any success to be recorded in the academic performance of primary school pupils, the issue of teachers’ professionalism and qualification must not be handled with levity hand. The purpose of this study therefore is to investigate effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of students in primary schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. To find out whether the students taught by National Certificate in Education (NCE) holders or Bachelor in Education (B.Ed) certificate holders performed better than their counterparts taught either by holders of Higher National Diploma (HND) or Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in their subject areas.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers are considered as the main pills of our educational system. The personal and professional development of teachers puts direct impact on student achievement. In government schools teachers are very old but academic course change every year. No proper trainings are conducted to update the knowledge of the teacher, still having low qualification and use the typical style to teach the students. Mostly teachers know little or nothing about the new concepts included in the new curriculum. Unqualified teachers are recruited who cannot manage the process of teaching and learning in schools effectively which is reflection in the poor performances of students and consequently brings dissatisfaction among parents regarding the performance of government schools. This is especially worrying because poor instruction and ineffective teaching reduces the demand for education which in turn reduces the pool of qualified teachers.
For many years in Kaduna State, Nigeria, there has been concern about the problems faced by most teachers in primary schools. The problems include: poor teaching techniques, insufficient training, inadequate facilities provided by the government and inappropriate communications language. It is in view of this, the researcher therefore aimed at looking into the effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of students in primary schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.3 Research Objectives
The study has both general objective and specific objectives. The general objective or main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of students in primary schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are:
i) To examine the effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of students
ii) To investigate the factors that lead to influx of these unqualified teachers in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State
iii) To determine the attitudes of teachers and students toward learning in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State
1.4 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
i) What are the effects of unqualified teachers on academic performance of students?
ii) What are the factors that lead to influx of these unqualified teachers in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
iii) What are the attitudes of teachers and students toward learning in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The followings are the research hypotheses to be tested in this study:
i) There is no significance relationship between unqualified teachers and academic performance
ii) There is no difference in the academic performance of students taught by professionally qualified teachers and those taught by unqualified teachers
1.6 Significance of Study
This study will be useful to both teachers and students who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance. Understanding classroom climate variables will allow for professional developments for teachers in focus on areas to increase student achievement. Understanding the importance of teachers and their impact on student performance will help school administrators at secondary schools retain teachers to make their teachings student centered. The study findings would also guide schools’ management committees to employ school teachers who have the right mix of different teacher characteristics and is expected to assist physics teachers in the teaching of physics to enhance students’ achievement. This research will contribute to existing knowledge in entrepreneurship education literature, by developing an intention model that will be useful for researchers in undertaking further research on related areas of study.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study investigates the effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of students in primary schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. It will therefore cover four selected primary schools pupils from the Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern areas of the Local Government. The variables of interest would be unqualified teachers and academic performance. While unqualified teacher is the independent variable, academic performance is the dependent variable.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Limitation of the study is an aspect of the study which the researchers knows that may affect the authenticity of the result but over which the researcher has no control, in other words, something is not as good as it should be, but the researcher cannot do anything about it. The limitations include:
1. The method of data collection reduced the authenticity of data collected. Triangulation is necessary through the use of other methods of data collection such as observation, rating, scale, questionnaire, interviews and so on.
2. Time constraints, the study was carried out in only four schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State due to inadequate time for the researcher to carry out the research and also focus on his/her academic
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms were used during the cause of the study.
Academic Performance: Scores attained in form one end of year examination.
Universal Basic Education Commission means committee responsible for co-ordinating and implementation of the programme (universal basic education) at the states and local Governments through the state universal basic education commission of each state and local Government education authorities, the commission was established on 7th Oct., 2004.
Unqualified Teachers means teachers posting to schools lacking the proper, necessary or required qualification to handle teaching activities and other school responsibilities effectively.
National Certificate on Education means a certificate examination awarded to an individual who attends and passes the required skills, qualified to teach in both primary and secondary schools educational levels.