1.1 Background to the Study
Education is very important in every society. Teaching and learning are the important components in education. The teachers make use of different approaches in teaching their students and their active learning. With the passage of time, altered methods and techniques are entered in the field of education and teachers make use of different kind of aids to make effective learning possible. In some cases, directives and exercises for students as well as for teachers are not given, while in few cases such exercises and instructional guides are not given at all, this quite often than not lead to the learning of just some specified concept in an integrated curriculum. Many teachers hold the notion that social studies is a simple subject that requires little if any, preparation. To them, teaching social studies involves merely talking to students about a given topic as may be taken from text books or a more look at some pictures (Talabi, 2004). This is sometimes followed by some discussion and students may ask questions afterwards, about what they have learnt. They may draw pictures themselves of what has been discussed and that is all. Social studies teaching is more than this, that is why adequate teaching aids are needed in teaching the subject at any level of education. Moreover, the methods require in the teaching such as inquiry, discussion, Role-playing simulation (both activity and historical) demand a lot of preparation on the part of teachers and students alike. In order to communicate effectively or elicit the desired responses, there is the need to employ different ways and means (audio-visual aids) which will appeal to most if not all the senses of the person receiving the message.
The requirement needed by the teachers to make effective teaching is resourcefulness. Aguekobuo, (2004) is of the view that, way to do this is for the teacher to engage in human capacity building which will involve the use of variety of strategies and techniques in his/her teaching. For these reasons teachers need to be acquainted with all the audio-visual aids that will help optimally teaching and learning process. It has also been observed that the use of verbalization method of teaching over the years has not made the subject very interesting. Agu and Hammad (2005), stated that, the performance of students has been very low. In fact the need for effective teaching and learning cannot be over emphasized. Agu, and Hammad, (2005) further observed that, teachers still use mainly traditional method of teaching which lead to poor students` understanding and performance of the subject. Abolade (2009) posits that social Studies like other subjects, can be effectively taught by employing various Audio-visual aids that appeal to three senses sight, touch and hearing. Among the numerous possible factors affecting teaching and learning in our schools are the poor teaching strategies. Abolode, (2009) further stated that study have shown that out of the five (5) sense organs we use for acquiring knowledge, visual materials which are learning and instructional materials that can be seen only taken up to 80% in the learning process, while Audio materials and equipment that appeal to our sense of hearing takes 11% and olfactory, tactile and tasting takes 9%.
Consequently, it is stated that Audio-visual instructional materials have made qualitative and quantitative education more meaningful because they have produced desirable results. However, audio visual usage does not seem to be receiving serious attention from all concerned, namely; students, teachers, sponsors of education and educational administrators/managers to mention but a few. These materials have value for instruction and present in different variants and qualities today. The uses of audio-visual materials have been discovered to facilitate effective communication transfer of information, knowledge skills, attitudes and other useful capabilities. Teachers should know that the resources for learning that instructor and students will use can influence the effectiveness of instructional programme. Audio visual materials could be said to be the various method, or devices used to disseminate information in the teaching and learning process, which teachers need to use to enhance the students better understanding of cultural, means of transportation system and conflict situations in Nigeria. However, lack of adequate and appropriate audio-visual materials essentially for the effective teaching and learning is rather making parents, teachers and students to perceive the school curriculum throughout the country with confusion and perplexity. It is against this background that the researcher tends to investigate the effect of audio, visual material and internet on the learning outcome of junior secondary school students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As a result of advancement and development of modern technology varieties instructional materials can be used to make learning more vivid and effective. This means that students can perform better wherever they are taught with these instructional materials particularly audio-visual aids as their comprehension and demonstration and cooperation are expected to enhance tremendously in teaching-learning process. Unfortunately, most of the social studies teachers neglect the use of audio-visual aids in teaching the subject. Probably, due to non availability of the materials or lack of techniques for using them. It is against this background that the researcher tends to investigate the effect of audio, visual material and internet on the learning outcome of junior secondary school students.
1.3 Research Objectives
The general objective or main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of audio, visual material and internet on the learning outcome of junior secondary school students. The specific objectives are:
i) To examine the impact of audio visual learning on the learning achievement of junior secondary school students
ii) To investigate the extent to which cooperation of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
iii) To determine the extent to which demonstrations of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
i) What is the impact of audio visual learning on the learning achievement of junior secondary school students?
ii) To what extent is cooperation of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids differ from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process?
iii) What is the extent to which demonstrations of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were postulated to guide the conduct of this study;
i) There is no significant correlation between visual aids and learning process.
ii) There is no significant difference between demonstrations of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
1.6 Significance o the Study
The study will invariably be of tremendous importance to students, teachers and researchers. The work will enable students to read and understand various audio-visual aids that facilitate teaching learning process, particularly video show. The Study will serve as reference to teachers who wish to find out the impact of audio-visual aids (video-show) on students academic achievement particularly in junior secondary schools. It will also highlight the appropriate materials of teaching which will bring about student’s interest and active participation in the subject. The work will enable the teachers to understand that the success of any teaching-learning activities is determined by how much the students are able to learn or gain from teaching. This can be achieved through the use appropriate audio-visual aids. The study will serve as a reference to researchers who wish to embark on further research on effects of audio-visual aids on students’ academic achievement. The work will also enable researcher to understand the impact of comprehension, demonstration and co-operation in the use of audio-visual aids in teaching-learning process.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study investigates the effect of audio, visual material and internet on the learning outcome of junior secondary school students. Two junior secondary schools will be selected for the study from each local government.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
More ever, the researcher will employ video decoder (video show) as an audio-visual aid among others in teaching-learning process. This occurred to due to non availability of audio-visual aids in most of the schools as well as time, financial and human constraints. However, the findings would not be limited, but should be generalized to what obtained in most of the junior secondary schools in the state.