EFFECTS OF ETHNO RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN GASSOL AND BALI LOCALGOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE

ABSTRACT

 

The study surveyed effects of ethno religious conflicts on the academic performance of students in Government secondary schools in Gassol and Bali local government area of Taraba State. Based on a detailed literature review, a total of five research hypotheses were formulated and tested on samples sizes of 169 in Bal iand 189 in Gassol representing the total population of 10 public secondary schools in Gassol and Bali local governments area of Taraba State. The instrument employed for the collection of data was the structured questionnaire. The methods of the analyses used were frequencies, percentages standard deviation, and mean t-test.  From the data analyzed, the following findings were made; that school authorities do not render assistance to students affected by ethno religious conflicts to improve academically. Secondly, the strategies teachers employ in trying to reintegrate traumatize students affected by ethno religious conflicts are not enough. Also, that traumatized students make more noise, participate actively in extracurricular activities all in an attempt to reintegrate themselves into the school and society. Again, that teacher renders some basic assistance to students affected by ethno-religious conflict. Finally, political and traditional leaders do not assist these affected students by ethno-religious conflict with basic needs of life and ways to cope academically.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page………………………………………………………………………….i

Declaration……………………………………………………………………….ii

Certification….………………………………………………………………….iii

Dedication..……………………………………………………………………...iv

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………….v

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………..vi

Table of contents………………………………………………………………..vii

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………...viii

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study………………………………………………..…1

1.2     Statement of the Problems……………………………………….………...3

1.3     Research Questions……………………………………………….……......3

1.4     Research Hypothesis…………………………………………….…………4 

1.5     Purpose of the Study………………………………………………..….…..5

1.6     Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………6

1.7     Scope of the study………………………………………………..….……..6

1.8    Research Methods………………………………………………..…….……6

1.9     Definition of Terms…………….……………………………………….…..7

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Theoretical Framework to the Study………………………………………10

Review of Related Literature……………………………………………………. 10

2.2     Review of Empirical Works……… ………………………………………57

2.3     Summary of Literature Review……………………………...……………..15

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Design ………….……………………………………………….58

3.2     Area of the Study…………………………………………………………..58

3.3     Population of the Study……………. .……………………………………..59

3.4     Sampling and Sampling Technique   ………………………………………61

3.5      Instrument for Data collection …..…….….……………………………..62

3.5     Validation of the Instrument………………………………………………12

3.7     Reliability of the Instrument...……………………………………………..63

3.8     Method of Data Collection………………………………………………..63

3.9     Method of Data Analysis………………………………………………….63

 

CHAPTER FOUR:RESULT ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.1     Research Question 1……………………………………………………..…67

4.2     Research Question 2…….……………………………………………..…...69

4.3     Research Question 3………………………………………………………..70

4.4     Research Question 4……………………………………………………….71

4.5    Research Question 5……………………………………………………….73

4.6     Hypothesis 1………………………………………………………………..74

4.7    Hypothesis 2……………………………………………………………….75

4.8     Hypothesis3………………………………………………………………..75

4. 9   Hypothesis4………………………………………………………………..76

4.10   Hypothesis 5………………………………………………………………..76

4.11 Discussion of Results………………………………………………………..78

4.12   Findings…………………………………………………………………….79

 

CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARYCONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary of procedures…………………………………………………..80

5.2     Collusion…………………………………………………………….……81.

5.3. Recommendation……………………………………………………….…..81

References……………………………………………………………………..…87

Appendix…………………………………………………………………….…...88

A………………………………………………………………………………….89

B…………………………………………………………………………………..89

C…………………………………………………………………………………..91

D…………………………………………………………………………………..91

E…………………………………………………………………………………..92

LIST OF TABLES

Table1: List of Principals Teachers and Students in Gassol Local Government Area in Taraba State…………………………………………………………………...59

Table 2: List of Principals, Teachers and Students in Bali Local Government Area in Taraba state……………………………………………………………………61

Table 3: Type of assistance school authorities render to students affected by ethno-religious conflict…………………………………………………………………67

Table  4: strategies teachers employ to assist traumatize students……………..69

Tables 5: Efforts of students who have been traumatize by conflict to re-integrate themselves to society……………………………………………………………..70

Table 6: How teachers assist students affected by ethno-religious conflict……71

Table 7:  Efforts of political and traditional leaders In assisting students affected by conflict ……………………………………………………………………………73

Table 8: statistics of response of Political and Traditional leaders

Table 9: statistics of response of hypothesis table 1……………………………74

Table 10: statistics of response of hypothesis table 2…………………………..75

Table11: statistics of response of hypothesis table 3……………………………75

Table 12: statistics of response of hypothesis table 4…………………………..76

Table 13: statistics of response of hypothesis table 5………………………….76

Table 14: Research Questionnaire………………………………………………89

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Human beings are born into the society and are classified according to ethnic group, race or nationality and religion influences the action and behavior of individuals. Getui in ethnicity and conflict by (Tarimo and Manwelo 2009), further observed that any attempt to prevent once livelihood, freedom of expression, right to socialize, access to political representation and right to exist results to conflict.  Ethno religious conflict means a situation in which the relationship between members of one ethnic or religious group and another is characterized by lack of cordiality and mutual understanding “driven” by suspicion, fear, and tendency towards confrontation in a multi ethnic and multi religious society. Humans are fallible and have the tendency of disagreeing at some point which leads to conflict. The frailty of human nature creates room for evil thought to inhabit the heart and push for violence acts against fellow human beings, the twin evils of religious intolerance ethnophobia has besieged the Nigerian society for decades.

 Taraba State is not immune from the experience of ethno- religious conflicts, in the year (2001), there was an ethnic conflict between Fulani herds’ men, Jukun and the Tiv people which resulted to lost of hundreds and thousands of lives and destruction of properties worth hundreds of millions. In recent times there has being serious clashes between different ethnic and religious groups, farmers and herds men in the state. The most affected local Governments are Gassol and Bali. These conflicts’ have left nothing to desire, only untold hardships poverty and frustration among the populace of these areas, (Gudaku, 2007). The social and economic development of these areas keeps deteriorating by persistent occurrence of this menace. Survival in these areas have become “If,” meaning if I survive an attack the next hour I will go to farm, or go to school.

According to West African Examination council (WAEC, 1999) identified and categorized problems responsible for students poor performance as inadequate facilities in schools, inadequate and unqualified teachers, parental, family, societal issues and poor government policies and funding of education (Ajila and Olutola, 2002).

Poor performance of secondary students in internal and external examinations in Gassol and Bali local government area of Taraba State, has posed a serious question to parents, teachers and the general public. Based on an oral interview conducted by the researcher,  in these local governments, reveals that out of one hundred students who have completed Secondary School, only about thirty percent can read and write correctly.  This is a pointer to the fact that attainment of the goals of the National Policy on education in establishing schools: “preparing individual for: useful living within the society and higher education”…cannot be achieved.

 Persistent ethno-Religious conflicts, is one of the major causes of poor performance of students. The devastating effects these conflicts is clearly reflected in the poor academic performance of students in secondary schools: class tests, assignments, internal and external examinations and concrete output in the society. Based on the fact that student affected by ethno religious conflict cannot afford basic needs of life, food, water, shelter, medical care, security and  leave in internally displaced camps (I.D.P) and are traumatized. These students are unable  to go to school, pay their tuition, buy the required text books, writing materials  and study in an atmosphere that is conducive to learning because the structures, facilities have being burnt down vandalized and equipments stolen from the schools.  Mass migration of people affected by ethno religious conflict to new and unfamiliar environments results to trauma, frustration and students are unable to attain their goals and aspirations in life.  This research seeks to address the devastating effects of ethno religious conflict on students and ways to manage its effects on student’s social, religious and academic life in Gassol and Bali local government.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

 Persistent ethno religious conflict is one of the major factors contributing to low academic performance. Their resultant effects are low academic performance in internal and external examinations, West African Examination Council, (WAEC), National Examination Council NECO), trauma, financial difficulty, political alienation, insecurity, hunger and low enrolment into school and attendance due to vandalized facilities and structures. However, before the devastating impact of ethno religious conflict, school enrolment and attendance  was very high, school structures and facilities averagely managed, academics performance improving periodically, economic and social activities normal with  trust and mutual relationship among different groups within these the local government. The persistent occurrence of ethno religious conflict within these local governments is making the future and dreams of students in education a mirage, most especially their present psychological challenges in the (IDP) camps and the insecurity, which is stopping people from farming in these local governments and its adverse effect is economic hardship.

1.3 Research Questions

To be able to address the effect of ethno religious conflict: the researcher poses the following research questions:  

  1. What type of assistance do the school authorities render to students affected by ethno religious conflict?
  2.  What strategies do teachers use to help students who are traumatized by ethno religious conflicts to improve academically?

3.  What efforts do students who have been traumatized by ethno religious conflict make to reintegrate into the school and society?

4. How do teachers assist students who have been affected by ethno religious conflict financially?

5. What efforts are political and traditional leaders making to remedy the condition of students affected by ethno religious conflict?

 1.4 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be addressed in the study of the work, these are:

1. There is no significant difference between mean response of school authorities in Bali and Gassol local government areas of Taraba State, in rendering assistance to students affected by ethno religious conflicts.

2.  There is no significant difference between the mean response of teachers in Bali and Gassol local government areas of Taraba State in employ strategies to reintegrate traumatized students affected by ethno religious conflicts to improve academically.

3. There is no significant difference between the mean response of students in Bali and Gassol local government areas of Taraba State, in striving to reintegrate into the schools and society after being traumatized by the devastating effect of ethno religious conflicts.

4. There is no significant difference between the mean response of teachers in Bali and Gassol local government areas of Taraba State, in assisting students affected by ethno religious conflicts financially to cope with burden.

5. There is no significant difference between the mean response of Political, traditional and religious  leaders in Bali and Gassol local government areas of Taraba State in  adopting  strategies to minimize ethno religious conflicts in order to evade these devastating  effects on students’ performance, social well being and economic development of the community.

1.5 Purpose of the Study

This research work, seeks to investigate the devastating impact of ethno religious conflict on the academic performance of students in Bali and Gassol Loacl gogernment areas. They specific purpose are:

  1. It seeks to investigate how school authorities assist student affected by the devastating effect of ethno religious conflict
  2. It also seeks to investigate how teachers help students affected by ethno religious conflict to improve academically
  3. It set out to investigate the efforts made by students affected by ethno religious to reintegrate themselves back to the society
  4.  It seeks to also investigate the financial assistance rendered to students affected by ethno religious conflict
  5. It set out to investigate the role played by traditional religious and political leaders to avert conflict, and assistance offered to student affected by ethno religious conflict

1.6 Significance of the Study

The work will be of benefit to students, teachers, parents and the community in knowing the devastating effect of ethno- Religious conflict and how to manage conflict. The finding of this research work will benefit schools and serve as a guide for public secondary schools especially within Bali and Gassol local governments of Traba State. This work will benefit students to know that ethno religious conflict is part of human limitations and the need to live peacefully.

 This work will be of befit teachers and serve as a guide to adopting better ways of handling low academic performance of students as a result of trauma from ethno religious conflict. This work will be of benefit also to the government, political, traditional and religious leaders in knowing the extent of damage ethno religious conflicts inflict on people and students as a result of a leaders inability to govern properly.  This research work will be of benefit to researchers on similar topic in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of masters’ degree in educational administration and planning.

1.7 Scope and limitation

This research work has Nigeria at heart but is limited to Gassol and Bali local government areas of Taraba State. However, the researcher used few secondary schools as examples for the work, which represent a wider outlook.

1.8 Research Method           

This study adopted a survey research method. This research method studies both small and large population by selecting and studying samples chosen from population to discover the relative incidents, distribution and interrelation of sociological and psychological variables. (Tolubi 2001) This survey method seeks to investigate the devastating effect and the responses of teachers, school authorities’ political and religious leaders to students affected by ethno religious conflict in Gassol and Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Ethnic The word ethnic is derived from the Greek word ethnos, which means a group of people who shared a common and distinctive culture. In its classical meaning, ethnic relates to a number of a particular ethnos (Thomas 17).

Ethnicity should be seen as a feeling of belonging to a distinctive cultural or linguistic group or a manifestation of ethnic consciousness in socio-cultural group or the manifestation of national consciousness, is not regarded as a bad thing within the community of nations. The cultivation of that feeling to serve negative ends cannot be regarded as the essence of the word. After all, ethnic consciousness can also be creatively cultivated to; serve positive ends in a multi-ethnic society (Thomas, 18).

Effects: According to the new international Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language: effect is a   result or product of some cause or agency: consequence. change that produces’ in one person or thing by another which often is perceived to be negative.

Performance: the act of carrying out or execution of the functions required of one (.Websters New International Dictionary)

Academics: scholarly related to school, college or university. Websters Comprehensive Dictionary.

Religion:  “is mans awareness and recognition of his dependant relationship on a Transcendent Being, the wholly other, namable or un-namable, personalized or impersonalized, expressible in human society through beliefs, worship and ethical or moral behavior” Ekwunife (1990). It could also mean beliefs, precepts, values and actions of human beings which to some large extend shapes and guide their spiritual, economic, political and social life. 

Ethno-Religious conflicts refers to those involving groups where religion is an integral part of social and cultural life, and religious institutions are representative, possess moral legitimacy, and mobilization potential. Where conflicting groups defined themselves along ethno-religious lines, religious identity can create sharp distinctions between parties, and increase group mobilization. Other distinguishing factors include: the high incidence of civilian casualties, suicide bombing, ethnic cleansing and action legitimized by religious, language, texts and images. Such conflicts are also often intra-states, in communities with long histories of tension and suffering from post-colonial deprivation or political or economic instability, religious leaders may attack incumbent government (Oreilana p.264, 2009).

 Violence is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or action, against a group or community, which either results in or has high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation. This definition associated intentionality with committing the act itself, irrespective of the outcome it produces. Generally, although, anything that is turbulent or excited in an injurious, damaging or destructive way, or preventing risk according, may be described as violent or occurring violently, even if not signifying violence by a person and against person, (Krug 1988 ). Violence in many forms is preventable. Evidence shows strong relationship between levels of violence and potentially modifiable factors such as concentrated poverty, income and gender inequality, the harmful use of alcohol, at the absence of self, stable and nurturing relationships between children and parents. Scientific research shows that strategies underlying causes of violence can be effective in preventing violence (Krug 6).

Conflict has many meanings in everyday life. To some, it refers to behavior or action. There is conflict where a trade union goes on strike or an employer looks out its employees. It is also conflict when two states are at war with one another, and whether battlefield events determine their relations. The actions constitute the conflict. If this were all, however, it would mean that a conflict ends of a conflict. Conflict is an interactive process manifested incompatibility, disagreement or dissonance within or between social entities. He also notes that conflict may be limited to one individual who is conflicted within himself the intrapersonal conflict (Wallensteen 3.1)

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