1.1 Background to the Study
The level of success recorded by the educational sector has been closely linked with the availability of resources. Among the resources needed for the effective administration of the educational sector, funding has been identified as an indispensable instrument. This is because funding serves as the life-wire for the management and administration of most sectors of the economy including the educational sector. It is based on this fact that UNESCO recommended that 26% of the annual budget of any nation should be set aside for the administration and management of the educational sector (Odia & Omofonmwan, 2007). This is because such funding strategy will assist in providing the basic resources needed for teaching and learning both in terms of quality and quantity.
Secondary education is crucial in both personal and national development. Secondary school level is the bridge between the primary and tertiary levels. Secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage within the range of 12 to 18 years (FRN, 2004). The broad goal of secondary education is to prepare the individual for useful living in the society and for higher education (FRN, 2004). Specifically, the secondary school system is geared towards catering for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles, to provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development (FRN, 2004). Secondary school should be able to provide quality teaching and learning.
Over time, effort has been made by government of various countries to ensure improvement in the level of funding made available for the administration of the secondary level of education. This is also the case in Nigeria where the government has relatively improved in the level of fund set aside for the development of the educational sector in the last few years (Voice of Nigeria, 2013). The improvement in funding is geared towards improving on the standard of education provided for the citizens especially in secondary schools. The government has taken this step to improve on the quality of education at this level for national growth and development. This is based on the aspiration of the government that education will serve as a tool for individual and national growth (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Effort has therefore been made to improve on the budgetary allocation to the educational sector which also covers for the secondary level of education.
Various educational stakeholders have similarly highlighted that the quality of educational output is positively related to the quality of funding. As a form of social service, education is a commodity that must be provided by the government for as many people in the society that are willing and qualified to acquire it. It is based on this premise that the government is expected to contribute significantly to the provision of this essential public service.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In a real sense, effective funding of secondary schools is aimed at promoting qualitative education of the citizens for national development. It is the expectation of the government, parents and even students that quality education is received by students in Nigeria secondary schools if appropriate administrative process/ strategies can be adopted by the government and the school management or authority. However, observations have shown that there seems to be poor management administrative process/strategies adopted by many secondary schools in Nigeria which is bringing about low quality education and is directly or indirectly affecting the educational performance of many secondary school students in the country. These poor management strategies can be seen in the areas of inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, and poor instructional materials provision among others. These situations have been seen to bring about poor academic achievement among the secondary school students, truancy, high drop-out rate, and high rate of examination malpractice, poor reading habit, joining of bad gang like cultism to mention but a few. This development has led the researcher to investigate fund management strategies and effective administration of secondary schools by using Uyo High School, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria as a case study.
1.3 Research Objectives
The general objective or main objective of this study is to investigate fund management strategies and effective administration of secondary schools by using Uyo High School, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria as a case study. The specific objectives are:
i) To identify the different sources from which Uyo High School, Uyo, get funds for effective administration
ii) To investigate the effects of inadequate funding of Uyo High School, Uyo, on effective administration
iii) To determine the reasons for inadequate financing of inadequate funding of Uyo High School, Uyo
1.4 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
i) What are the different sources from which Uyo High School, Uyo, get funds for effective administration?
ii) What are the effects of inadequate funding of Uyo High School, Uyo, on effective administration?
iii) What are the reasons for inadequate financing of inadequate funding of Uyo High School, Uyo?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be practically significant to school principals, teachers, parents, students, Akwa Ibom State government, and future researchers. The findings of this study will acquaint school principals on the poor quality educational system in Akwa Ibom State and also offer them credible strategies to restrain such trend and improve the quality of learning in the state. The findings of this study will unearth some administrative problems ravaging secondary school administration in Akwa Ibom State and suggest some possible strategies which can be adopted by school principals to abolish such problems. Teachers will benefit immensely from the findings of this study. This study will unveil some of the teachers’ problems which lead to poor teaching and learning in various secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. As the school principals adopt and implement some strategies suggested in this study in their bid to solve these problems, teachers will be favoured. They will be motivated in other to exhibit high morale in their job as their salaries are likely to be increased. Parents will benefit from the findings of this study. When adequate care is given to teachers, they will be happy to teach their students with enthusiasm. Consequently, students will receive quality education and also excel academically to the glory of their parents. Their parents will not only be glad and proud of their children, but they will also be elated that the money they are investing in their children’s’ education is not in vain. The findings of this study will benefit students colossally. It will help them experience quality sound teaching from motivated and high morale teachers, which will enable them attain academic excellence.
The findings of this study will be very beneficial to Akwa Ibom State government. It will uncover the academic and administrative problems which is the root of low quality educational and administrative system that has been obliterating various secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State in the recent time. This study will serve as an eye-opener to the state government and also give her an insight on how to tackle these problems. Having eliminated these problems, the educational system in the state will revive in all ramifications. Mass exodus of teachers (brain drain) from the state will reduce drastically. Akwa Ibom State will be rated highly as one the best educationally developed state in Nigeria and in diaspora. The findings of this study will be added to the existing literatures. Researchers in a similar field of study will also find the results of this study very interesting and useful.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The content scope focused on funds management strategies and effective administration of secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. It will therefore be carried out among some selected students, teachers and parents of the students of Uyo High School, Uyo.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
This study had some limitations which include the problem of diverse coverage of locations of the respondents as they are spread around the state. There was also the problem of time and uncompromising attitudes of some respondents encountered during the study as some respondents refused to fill the questionnaire while some respondents were not available to answer the questions despite several visits.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
Funds: a sum of money or other resources whose principal or interest is set apart for a specific objective.
Management strategies: techniques that are used to direct and control an organization to achieve a set of goals.