ASSESSMENT OF LACTOBACILLI FROM NONO AND OGI TWO LOCALLY FERMENTED FOODS FOR HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC PROPERTIES

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess the effects of lactobacilli from “ogi” and “Nono” for hypocholesterolemic properties. Four prospective Lactobacilli  strain were screened for acid and bile tolerance. The most resistant strain was tested in rats fed high cholesterol diet and a control group fed normal diet.  The rats were fed for a period of three weeks after which, the animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. The average values for Triglyceride, Low-density lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Total cholesterol were 1.02±0.081, 0.78±0.214, 1.99±0.035, 3.74±0.103 respectively for rats fed high cholesterol diet and 1.27±0.049, 1.19±0.015, 2.46±0.075 and 4.28±0.098 respectively for the control group. Statistically there were significant differences in the values (p<0.05) but no significant difference in LDL. Chol. (p>0.05). The result of this study shows that lactobacilli isolated from traditional fermented foods has hypocholesterolemic effects.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The incidence of hypercholesterolemia is increasing rapidly with the implements people’s living standard and alteration of life style. Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high level of cholesterol in the blood. Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis of the arterial vessels wall and to the thrombosis is the   cause of premature mortality and a disability adjusted life years in Europe and is also increasingly common in the developing countries (Allendere et al., 2008). Hyperlipidemia is a dominant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the leading cause of death in many countries. Elevated serum cholesterol is generally a risk factor correlated with the development of coronary artery disease. Dietary fat is one the most important environmental  factors associated with the incidence of those disease; diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat have been shown to promote atherosclerosis (Mcnamara, 2000). Arthesclerosis is considered to be a modified form of chronic inflammation induced by lipid and many have followed in this path including evidence that numerous cell adhesion molecules and growth factors were determined in the atherosclerotic plaques (Yang et al., 2005)

Maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is vital for a healthy status and is achieved through regulatory network of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis,  absorption, metabolism and elimination (Deng, 2009). High cholesterol has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome symptoms including abdominal obesity (large waist circumference) hyperglycemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia and hypertension as much as about 3 folds (Isomia et al., 2001). Specifically, total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels are positively related to coronary heart disease (CHD) and high-density lipoprotein to CHD (Kritharides et al., 2004; Sblendeio and Palmeri, 2008) although the TC to HDLC ratio is considered a risk factor.

The WHO has predicted that by 2030, approximately 23.6 million people will die from CVDs and these are projected to remain the single cause of death (WHO, 2014). It has been reported that even a 1% decrease in serum cholesterol levels will lower the risk of coronary heart disease to about 3% (Manson et al., 1992). Therefore, lowering the serum cholesterol level is one of the effective means for the prevention of CDVs. There are many commonly used drugs such as strains are widely used in clinical practice to lower the serum cholesterol levels (Taylor et al., 2011). However, because of the high price and side effects of the commonly used drugs, it is more and more attractive to develop more effective and safer alternative therapies for lower serum cholesterol level.

Fermented food are common throughout the world and traditional fermentation processes  such  as those involved in the production of fermentation of dairy products and alcoholic beverages have been performed for thousand years. These food products result from the activities of microorganism which modifies the flavor and texture and increased long term products stability (Holzapfel, 1997). Many of the fermented product consumed by different ethnic group have therapeutic values, some of the most important are fermented milk (i.e. yogurt curds which contain high concentration of pro-biotic bacteria that can lower the cholesterol level (Jyott, 2010), improvement of nutrients, absorption and digestion, restores the balance of bacteria in the gut to hinder constipation, abdominal cramps, asthma, allergies, lactose and gluten intolerance (Abdel et al., 2009). The slurries of  carbohydrate based fermented foods such as ogi, fufu and wara have been known to exhibit health promoting properties such as control of gastroenteritis in animals and human (Aderiye et al., 2007; Olukoya et al., 2011). Raw fermented are rich in enzymes. Our body needs enzymes to properly digest, absorb and make full use of food. As you age, your body’s supply of enzymes decreases (Egbere, 2008).

Early in 1974, Mann and Spoerry firstly discovered the cholesterol lowering effect of fermented milk ingested by the Massal tribe people. Since then, more and more evidence have suggested the effect of lactic acid bacteria on serum cholesterol levels in animal bodies.

1.1 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The health benefits of probiotic foods cannot be over emphasized. Currently, probiotics organisms containing foods are being developed into commercial food supplements in most developed countries. Nigeria indigenous fermented foods with probiotic potentials remain under exploited. This is the trust of the work

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY                       

The major aim of this study is to assess lactobacilli from two locally traditional fermented foods for their hypocholesteronic properties.

The objective of the study is to demonstrate potential probiotic properties of lactobacillus strains in indigenous fermented foods.

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