This study   examines the impact of code-switching and code-mixing and how they are projected in the Nigerian Language as observed in the selected Nollywood movie Figurine (Araromire) as directed and produced by Kunle Afolayan

Code-switching and code-mixing are widespread phenomena in bilingual and multilingual communities where speakers use their native language (L1) and their second language (l2) in different domains of a language structure. The term code-switching emphasizes movement from one language to another and the term code-mixing emphasizes hybridation. The aim of this project is to present why bilingual switch and mix two or more language and switch back and forth while they speak. The case study of this project is a selected Nollywood movie stated above. Nollywood movies focuses on Nigeria’s experiences, believes, norms, traditions, sensibilities, cultures etc.







1.1 Background to the study-  -        1

1.2 Statement of the problem- -        2

1.3 Purpose of Study-    -        2

1.4 Scope of the Study-- -        2

1.5 Methodology- -        3

1.6 Limitation-     -        3

1.7 Significance of the Study- -        3


2.0                                       LITERATURE REVIEW-         -        4

2.1 Definition of code-   -        4

2.2 Definition of code-switching-      -        12

2.3 Types of code-switching-   -        14

2.4 Definition of code-mixing- -        16

2.5 Types of code-mixing-       -        -20

2.6 History and origin of code-switching and code-mixing-   -21

2.7 The Difference between Code-Switching and Code-Mixing-     -        22

2.8 Code-Switching and Code-Mixing or Borrowing-  -        22

2.9 Possible Purposes Triggering Code-Switching and Code-Mixing-      -23

2.8 Domain-          -       29

2.9 Functions of Code-Switching and Code-Mixing-    -        31

2.10 Historical Background of Nollywood Movies-       -31

2.11 Themes of Nollywood Movies-  -        33

2.12 Code-Switching and Code-Mixing in Movies-       - 33


3.0                        DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION- -35

3.1     Introduction-       -        35

3.2     Data analysis-      -35

3.3     About the Movie  -        - 36                               


4.0                                 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION- -        56

4.1 Summary-   - 56

4.2 Conclusion  - -        57

4.3 Recommendation-   -        58








1.1 Background to the study

The concept,  code-switching is a term in Linguistics referring to alternation between two or more languages, dialect, or language registers in a single conversation, stretch of discourse, or utterance between people who have more than one language in common.

Code-mixing is the use of one language in another language, the mixing of two or more languages or language varieties in a speech.

          Ajijola (2011) sees language as a unifying force and a common ground among various people through which effective communication is carried out. It has however been noticed that even within the same language, there are different ways or styles of speaking. The contact English language had with Nigeria and her indigenous languages and a hid to communicate effectively across and within boundaries cases of intra and inter-ethnic communication, led to code-mixing.

Nigeria has a very complex linguistic system with many indigenous languages, various dialects and the English language. To proffer solution to language problems, a Novelist modify English language and adopt various strategies among these are code-switching and code-mixing.

This study presents the critical examination of code-switching and code-mixing in the Nollywood Movie FIGURINE (ARAROMIRE). Nollywood Movies uses English language and Nigerian indigenous language as well as pidgin.


1.2 Statement of the problem

The multi-lingual and multi-cultural or Bi-lingual competence on the inter language relationship between languages in Nigeria have led to code-switching and code-mixing in conversation. And also lack of competence in the targeted language brought about code-switching and code-mixing. Based on the study this research focuses on what style, and reasons for code-switching and code-mixing that occur in the Nigerian movie FIGURINE (ARAROMIRE). The main problem why cast in the movie code-switch and code-mix English language and other indigenous Nigerian languages.

1.3 Purpose of Study

Due to the fact that code-switching and code-mixing occurs in Nollywood movies. This research will investigate and contribute to the debate on the use of code-switching and code-mixing in the Nollywood Movie. How and why code-switching and code-mixing occurs in the Nollywood movie FIGURINE (ARAROMIRE) and in the Nigerian movie industry. This research will contribute to the Nigerian usage of language and help the Federal government in planning effective and a fixed lingual-franca.

1.4 Scope of the Study

Code-switching and code-mixing are well known character in the speech star or pattern of the average Bi-lingual in any human society.

This study will look into the effectiveness of code-switching and code-mixing in Nigeria. This work will bring into enlightenment if use of code-switching and code-mixing in Nollywood movies is as a result of proficiency in language usage or deficiency and the thorough investigation will seek to what extent does the performance of these Socio-linguistic elements positive or negatively affect language competency in Nigeria.

1.5 Methodology

The research method will be mainly focusing on Nollywood movie FIGURINE (ARAROMIRE) as the case study. The movie will be analyzed alongside the reasons, effect and motivation for code-switching and code-mixing.

1.6 Limitation

Due to the researcher’s level of proficiency, knowledge and understanding of the English, Yoruba, Pidgin and little of Hausa languages. The research work will cover the selected movie FIGURINE (ARAROMIRE) in the Nigerian movies industry. This research work will be limited to code-switching and code-mixing.

1.7 Significance of the Study

Ayeomi (2001) cited that language expert across the globe have investigated in their experiments the causes, functions, characteristics and effects of code-switching and code-mixing. Such investigation on the causes of the phenomena, for instance, has revealed Socio-linguistics and Psyco-linguistics factors. One is by lingualism or language contact that results in lexical borrowing and mixture of English and vernacular expression in the speech of African Bi-lingual (ANSRE 1971; Bangbose 1971; Chang and Butler 1789).

The work of this study will present why Bi-lingual and Multi-lingual code-switch and code-mix into two or more languages and switch back and forth when they speak. The study will be useful for Sociolinguistics and Psycholinguistics students.

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