This study investigate the Effect of value added tax on revenue generation of southwestern states in Nigeria during the period of 2011-2016.
The study used survey design, questionnaire was u8sed used in the study to get a robust result.
The findings reveals that; There is a direct relationship between value added tax and revenue generated in Ondo state; There is a direct relationship between value added tax and revenue generated in Lagos state; That there is a direct relationship between value added tax and revenue generated in Osun state; There is an inverse relationship between value added tax and revenue generated in Ekiti state; There is a direct relationship between value added tax and revenue generated in Oyo state; There is a direct relationship between value added tax and revenue generated in Ogun state.
The study concluded that value added tax is beneficial to the states in Nigeria and hence Nigeria economy.
The study suggest that; The outcome of this study indicates that if more goods and services are taxed, the revenue base of the states will increase, therefore, government should develop a strategy to tax the citizens moderately; The tax collection body and mechanism used by tax officials to administer taxation collection must be free from corruption and embezzlement. If this is not done the revenue collected many not reach the desired point.
1.1 Background of the Study
Countries introduced a Value Added Tax (VAT) because they are dissatisfied with their existing tax structure. This dissatisfaction falls broadly into one, or possibly all, of four categories: (1) the existing sales taxes are unsatisfactory; (2) a customs union requires discriminatory border taxes to be abolished; (3) a reduction in other taxation is sought; or (4) the evolution of the tax system has not kept pace with the development of the economy (Tait, 1988). If VAT had a birth certificate, the place and year of birth would read ‘France’, ‘1954’ respectively. The VAT created in France in 1954 was a Value Added type of consumption tax on goods, levied at the production stage. In 1968 however, this tax was merged with the existing turnover tax on services and a local tax on retail sales into a single, comprehensive levy extending through the retail stage.(Owens, 1996) The Value Added Tax (VAT) was introduced in Nigeria in 1993 by the Federal Military Government. Since then, the Value Added Tax Decree had been amended more than half a dozen times, the latest being the Value Added Tax (Amendment) Act of 2007. Some of the amendments have introduced significant changes which are yet to be reflected in the body of existing literature. The idea of introducing VAT was recommended by Dr Sylvester Ugoh, who led a Study Group on Indirect Taxation in November 1991. The decision to accept the recommendation was made public in the 1992 budget speech. (okpe, 2001) In addition, according to Obianwuna (2005), the Federal Government set up two study groups in 1991, one was set up by the Federal Ministry of Finance and Economic Development to study and give recommendation on the reform needed in direct taxes in Nigeria. The Federal Ministry of Budget and Planning set up the other group on indirect taxation. As the group recommended the introduction of VAT in Nigeria, this made the Federal Government to set up a committee who will carry out a feasibility study on its implication in Nigeria. This committee gave the general guideline for the establishment of VAT in Nigeria and its administration was given to the Federal Inland Revenue Services, which was already charged with the responsibility of administering most other taxes in Nigeria. The Sales Tax was under jurisdiction of the States and generally poorly administered with marginal contribution in terms of revenue. After extensive deliberation and consultation, VAT was introduced on 24th August 1993 as a federal tax by the Value Added Tax Decree 102 in Abuja by the President and Commander-in-chief of Nigeria. The Nigerian Federal Government enacted the VAT Amendment Act in 2007; this act empowered the Federal Government to fix the rate of value added taxes to be imposed in Nigeria. The rate was increased from 5% to 10%. However, discussions regarding the possibility of a 50% reductions in the rate are on. The Value Added Taxes are one of the major sources of financing in a number of economically developing countries across the world; this is also similar in Nigeria as well.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Value added tax as a consumption tax has a wider coverage since the cause of adverse variance can be adequately controlled under proper administration (Onaolapo, Aworemi, & Ajala, 2013). The revenue generated from consumption taxes can help to boost the financial base of any economy. This however involves exploiting the potential and adopting the type of consumption tax that will recognize the tax payers as utility minimizing individuals and safeguarding their evading behaviour.
With the introduction of Value added tax, there is increase in revenue base of federal government of Nigeria, because the problem of tax avoidance and tax evasion are reduced. (Okoli, & Afolayan, 2015). Also VAT has shifted the burden of tax toward consumption rather than savings hence encourages investment. With the increment in investment, this leads to increase in the level of national income. VAT in addition to the above contributes to increase in the standard of living of the citizens. This is because the proceeds from VAT are used to provide public goods like roads, bridges, schools and hospitals, which will be of equal benefit to both the rich and the poor. It has also generated employment for many Nigerians.
Poor VAT administration as identified by Olaoye (2009) was one of the problems confronting VAT in Nigeria. Tax authorities perform only the technical functions without performing the needed management functions, taken the complexity of tax administration into consideration, there are bound to be ineffectiveness of tax administration. Basically, the performance of only technical functions leads to false declaration, refusal to complete tax return forms, fraud, inflation of deductible expenses, smuggling, default, illegal bunkering, etc. The dishonest practices by some tax officials also pose a serious threat to the effective tax administration in Nigeria especially when such practices are capable of having demoralizing effects on honest tax payers. Hence, this study set out to examine the effect of value added tax o internally generated revenue of south western states in Nigeria.
1.3 Research Questions
1. What is the impact of value added tax on the revenue generated in Ondo State?
2. What is the impact of value added tax on the revenue generated in Lagos State?
3. What is the impact of value added tax on the revenue generated in Osun State?
4. What is the impact of value added tax on the revenue generated in Ekiti State?
5. What is the impact of value added tax on the revenue generated in Oyo State?
6. What is the impact of value added tax on the revenue generated in Ogun State?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1. Investigate the relationship between Value Added Tax and revenue generation in Ondo State.
2. Examine the relationship between Value Added Tax and revenue generation in Lagos State
3. Evaluate the relationship between Value Added Tax and revenue generation in Osun State
4. Determine the relationship between Value Added Tax and revenue generation in Ekiti State.
5. Ascertain the relationship between Value Added Tax and revenue generation in Oyo State.
6. Find the relationship between Value Added Tax and revenue generation in Ogun State
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H01: Value added tax does not have significant effect on revenue generation of Ondo State
H02: Value added tax does not have significant effect on revenue generation of Lagos State
H0 3: Value added tax does not have significant effect on revenue generation of Osun State
H0 4: Value added tax does not have significant effect on revenue generation of Ekiti State
H0 5: Value added tax does not have significant effect on revenue generation of Oyo State
H06 Value added tax does not have significant effect on revenue generation of Ogun State
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the Effect of value added tax on revenue generation of southwestern states in Nigeria, using the timeframe of 5 years, (2011-2016). The study hereby uses secondary data, and the data was sourced from the federal government internal revenue website.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This research work will be an invaluable source of literature for researchers, student, marketing practitioners, accountants, bankers, companies, government agencies and related field who might be interested in knowing much about the concept of “VAT”. Its benefaction to economic development in South Western States in Nigeria. The origin of value added tax, its application and effects on internally generated revenue in South Western States in Nigeria were analyzed which will be an indispensable material to the above mentioned beneficiaries.
1.8 Definition of Terms
- Tax: is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organisation in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, or evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law.
- Value Added Tax: this is known in some countries as a goods and services tax, it’s a type of general consumption tax that is collected incrementally, based on the increase in value of product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
- Vatable Goods and Services: these are all goods manufactured/assembled in or imported into Nigeria, except those specifically exempted under the law. All items not included in this published list are vatable at the standard rate of 5%, except in the case of exports where the rate is 0%.
- Vatable Persons: A Vatable person under the VAT Act is “a person (other than a public authority acting in that capacity) who independently carries out in any place, an economic activity as a producer, wholesaler, trader, supplier of services (including mining, and other related activities) or person exploiting tangible or intangible property for the purpose of obtaining income by way of trade or business”. In other words, a Vatable person is the one who trades in Vatable goods and services for a consideration.
- Taxable period: this is the period within which vat is collected and remitted. The taxable period in Nigeria is made before the 21st day of the following in the month of collection.
- Tax Invoice: is the authority to make claims on VAT. It is the invoice or receipt given to the purchaser of the vatable goods and services.
- Sales Tax: is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services. Usually laws allow or require the seller to collect funds for the tax from the customer at the point of purchase.
- Tax System: a legal system for assessing and collecting taxes.
- Budget: an estimate of cost, revenue, and resources over a specific period, reflecting a reading of future financial condition and goals. It serves as a plan of action for achieving quantified objectives, standard for measuring performance and device for coping with foreseeable adverse situations.
- Economy: an economy is the large set of inter-related production and consumption activities that aid in determining how scarce resources are allocated.
- Tax Administration: a revenue service, revenue agency or taxation authority is a government agency responsible for the intake of government revenue, including taxes and sometimes non-tax revenue.
- Revenue: is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. Revenue is also referred to as sales or turnover. Some companies receive revenue from interest, royalties, or other fees.