1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
The joint admission matriculation board (JAMB) is Nigerian entrance examination board for tertiary level institutions. The examinations being administered are available for most students who choose to apply to Nigerian public and private mono-technics, polytechnics and universities. Most of these candidates must already have concluded external examinations administer either by West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) or the Nigerian National Examination Council (NECO). Computer Based Testing is another platform JAMB uses to administer UTME, which is obviously different from the common paper and pencil method. The Computer Base Test (CBT) did not give option for the paper and pencil base test (PPT). Chijioke Okoronkwo, (2015) pointed out that when the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) mulled the idea of migrating form paper pencil test to computer based test six years ago, the proposal then elicited some apprehension. This brings lots of questions in the minds of many Nigerians. In spite the wide spread reservation about the proposal, JAMB has consistently emphasized that CBT would engender a seamless conduct of the Unified Tertiary Education Matriculation Examination (UMTE).
According to the Registrar of JAMB, Prof. Dibu Ojerinde cited security challenges, high cost of producing writing materials for the paper pencil base test, high cost of transporting materials and cubing examination malpractice as some of the reasons behind the adaptation of the CBT. Olatunde Yemi (2013) Observed that, those who argue in favour of CBT, insist that Nigerians cannot afford to lag behind in the digital world of 21st century, while critics argue that efforts to educate candidates who are yet not tech-savvy or computer literate have been inadequate.
According to Goke Adeyinka, (2015) The 2014/2015 Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Examination placement of students into various tertiary institutions across the country has thrown up several inadequacies and challenges that have made it imperative for an urgent rethink of model that has been adopted for the exercise. About 1.8 million candidates who sat for theexamination were made to write the test through the use of computer (CBT). This was not the case in 2013/2014, when candidates were given an option to choose between CBT and PPBT. The time for the CBT and PPBT option in the 2013/2014 gave room for more designated centres in which candidates could write the test. It was recorded that as at 2013/2014 when PPBT was allowed alongside CBT about 4000 centers in 400 towns were available to students to choose from. This made it possible for students to write the examination in centres close their area of abode. This was not the case in the 2014/2015 exercise where the centers reduce to considerable 250. The limitation of the examination centers was such that candidates had to travel from their location to centers far away from them. In some cases, they had to travel from one town to another.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
The Computer Base Test (CBT) is a platform introduced by the board to the conducting UTME examination instead the normal Paper Pencil Test (PPT) as a way to reduce and curtail the nefarious activities in the aspect of looking for all possible ways of abating cheating, solving security problems and reducing cost.
However there are short comings such as server and power failure. Denials of right of choice of types of examination, limited CBT centers, problem of state of student’s computer literacy and accessibility ,inadequate computers and internet facilities in public and private secondary schools, and inadequate preparation for proper implementation by JAMB. Comparative statistic results shows that in 2013/2014 over a total of number of 990,179 candidates registered for the paper and pencil test examination type while 25,325 candidates registered for computer base test which amounted to 1,1015,504 applicant Aja Anayo (2015).
The registrar/chief executive of JAMB prof. Dibu OJerinde in Abuja while announcing the release of the 2014 UTME results said that only 24 candidates scored 250 and above in the paper and pencil test (PPT) while 23 candidates scored 250 and above in the computer base test (CBT). In 2015/2016 JAMB forced all candidates writing the UMTE to take the CBT regardless of distance and level of computer literacy among many Nigerians students.
Therefore, there is need to assess the issues or problems faced by private computer based test centers and find the best solutions to them.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The main objective of the study is to assess the issues faced by private computer based test centers for jamb examinatios and solutions.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
What is the meaning of Computer based test?
What are the problems associated with private computer based test centers?
What are the advantages of computer based test over hand written test?
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY.
This study will help in finding solution to problems faced by private computer based test centers for Jamb Examination.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
This study focus on issues and solution associated with private computer based test centers for Jamb examiation.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.
This study is limited to private computer based test centers for Jamb examination.
Aja, A. (2000). Changing minds: Computers, learning, and literacy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Aviram, A. (2000). From "computers in the classroom" to mindful radical adaptation by education systems to the emerging cyber culture. Journal of Educational Change, 1, 331-352.
Bennett R. E., Braswell J., Oranje A., Sandene B., Kaplan B., Yan F., Does it matter if I take my mathematics test on computer? A second empirical study of mode effects in NAEP. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment 6(9) (2008)
Chijioke okoronkwo (2015) The Nigerian Guardian Paper 26, June 2015.
Goke A. (2015) The Nigerian Guardian paper, June 2015.