1.1  Background To The Study

 An appraisal of Nigerian government funding indicates s that a significant portion is appropriated to funding education including secondary schools. However due to  increasing cost of educational funding there has been calls to cut cost to reduce the overall  cost of government spending in the educational sector. (Otieno & Colclough, 2009).But in view of the significance of the educational sector it is not proper to cut cost so as to avert the

Damaging consequences. (Go, 2005).Therefore due to greater demand for

Education Because the increased public demand for education and training has stretched the government budget so much,

the government has, in response, had to intensify partnerships in educational funding with parents and

communities, individual investors, civil society and donors. The education sector in Kenya, therefore, is financed

from different sources depending on the categories of schools. Mainly public resources and grants from donors

and bilateral loans fund the public education sector. Private investors, religious, charitable and other Non

Governmental Organizations (NGOs) also play a major role in financing education programs in various parts of

the country (MOEST, 2001).



Provision of quality secondary education is important in generating the opportunities and benefits of social and

economic development as envisaged in vision 2030. The educational needs for secondary education have

increased due to the introduction of Free Primary Education in 2003 and the increased transition rate. Secondary

enrolment has grown from 0.9 million in 2004 and is expected to reach 2.7 million by 2015. This requires that

the government commits more resources towards secondary education sub-sector in recurrent and physical

infrastructure expansion. Currently the government faces budgetary constraints with the treasury claiming that

there are no funds to employ more teachers and meet physical infrastructural development. With the

implementation of the devolved administrative systems, government expenditure on education is likely to

increase even more. This therefore casts doubt on the sustainability of government funding. There is need for

school managements to explore other alternative sources of financing secondary education in Kenya especially

in the rural areas with an aim of achieving educational development goals, hence need for the study.

2. Sources of Financing Education

Various countries that are on track in achieving UPE are now looking for innovative strategies and financing

options for expanding secondary education, consistent with national human capital development goals. However,

fiscal constraints prevent many, especially low-income countries, from relying solely on government revenue to

finance desired educational expansion. To solve these problems, most countries have adopted policies to (a)

charge tuition fees to recoup part of the cost of providing public education services; and/or (b) encourage

development of private schools to handle at least part of the expansion.

Assie-Lumumba (2005) identifies five sources of financing education: the state, local communities, families,

businesses and external sources. In general, for children from rural communities to access education at 17 lower

costs, there is a tendency for the most broad-based contribution of rural communities to the costs of education to

be situated in the framework of investment costs. The construction of school buildings is a significant area in

which community participation is most visible and widespread.


mortality by about 8% (World Bank, 2005)

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Provision of good quality secondary education is a critical tool in generating opportunities and benefits of social

and economic development (World Bank Report, 2005). Educating people means putting opportunities into their

hands and it is recognized as one of the best anti-poverty strategies. It is also one of the best ways of ensuring a

country’s economic prosperity and competiveness. It is estimated that average earnings increase by 11% with

each additional year of education (Ndichu, 2003).



A critical analysis of the Public and Private expenditure in education, however, indicates that the public and

households are not getting their money’s worth in education (MOEST, 2001). This is because the country does

not enjoy enrolment and participation rates consistent with its high level of public spending in education. As

indicated in the sectoral analysis, the entire education system faces problems of access, equity, completion,

equality and regional and gender disparities. As the government and other players in education therefore, find

alternative viable strategies in pursuit of quality education for all, there are major challenges in the cost and

financing of education that need to be addressed. The Facilities Development Unit of the Ministry of Higher

Education also grants funds for specific development projects in schools identified for the development of

certain facilities.


1.3  Objectives of the Study

To determine the  strategies  mobilized for alternative sources of funding secondary schools in Enugu state

1.4  Research Questions

What is the  mobilization strategies for alternative sources of funding secondary schools in Enugu state

1.5  Significance of the Study

Education is fundamental for the development of manpower and the nation   strategic development goals. Consequently the governments at various levels have consistent deployed huge finances into the sector. However the growing need for infrastructure and overhead cost is placing greater burden on government. Hence the need for alternative funding strategies

1.6  Research Hypothesis

Ho The  mobilization strategies for alternative sources of funding secondary schools in Enugu state

is not effective


Hi  The  mobilization strategies for alternative sources of funding secondary schools in Enugu state is effective

1.7  Scope of the Study

The study is focused on the appraisal of the mobilization strategies for alternative sources of funding secondary schools in Enugu state


1.8  Limitations of the Study

The study was confronted by some constraints including logistics and geographical factors


1.9  Definition of Terms


Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values,





A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem.

The art and science of planning and marshalling resources for their most efficient and effective use. The term is derived from the Greek word for generalship or leading an army