1.1 Background of the study.
Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola (1997). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.Instructional materials according to Emma and Ajayi (2004) are those things which help teaching and learning process. It helps to promote understanding of the concept and generalization by making lesson practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of the student at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process moiré effective and more interesting to students. Bassey (2002) opinioned that Science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of biology in secondary schools adequately.
According to Adeniyi (2000), the effect of instructional materials is to communicate more permanently, health related issues, and information is retained when supplemented with aid. Certainly instructional materials when carefully selected and skillfully used will make learning more effective. Therefore it becomes necessary to investigate the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of biology. However, man and animal possess the necessary abilities for learning. In other words, they are potential learners. Certain factors within and outside the learner determine how effectively each individual learn. Instructional materials can be in different forms such as textual and non-textual, the visual the auditory and audio-visual. Witwoth and Benson (2003), indicate that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of visual instructional materials in biology classroom that would enhances its teaching. With these concerns in mind and the educational development, The current study is carried out to address the issues associated with the effect of instructional materials in biology teaching in Secondary schools. Schools should provide enough instructional materials to enable teachers clarify their lesson. Adequate infrastructure facilities and condusive atmosphere for effective learning of biology and retention of what is learnt. Schools should send their biology teachers to seminars and workshops in order to update their knowledge.
1.2 Statement of the Problem.
The effect of using visual instructional materials in biology teaching has been widely researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The needs for exploring locally available materials as an alternative for the grossly unavailable materials in our schools, resourcefulness of the teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that classroom teaching does not have to be retarded by lack of funds. Hence, government must strive to develop her local technology in all its ramifications, since biology is interested in providing solutions to man’s problems holistically. Many writers in biology have pointed out the grossly unavailability of instructional materials coupled with teachers attitude towards the utilization during classroom teaching-learning situations. The problems are that; visual instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not improvising and reluctant in using them. Thus, in this research attempt would be Identified. Identify various secondary schools that required visual instructional materials, Identify visual instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school, Identify visual instructional materials available in secondary schools and Identify how the the effect of instructional materials like chalkboard, funnel board, model real things, overhead projector, tape recorders, radio, television etc affect the performance of students in secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
1. To identify how frequently economics teacher utilizes instructional materials during economics lessons.
2. To identify problem associated with these of instructional materials in economics instruction.
3. To identify reason why the teacher do not use instructional materials.
4. To identify the benefits of instructional materials to the student.
5. To identify suggested solutions to the problem of instructional materials.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
1. How frequently do biology teachers utilize visual instructional materials during biology lesson?
2. What are the problems associated with the the effect of instructional materials in economics instruction?
3. What are the reasons why the teachers do not use instructional materials?
4. What are the benefits of instructional materials to the students?
5. What are the suggested solutions to the problems?
1.5 Significance of the Study.
The significance of the study is to identify the importance of visual instructional materials in teaching and learning of biology and how both the teacher and the learner can manipulate the visual instructional materials to achieve maximum learning objectives. The study would be a great importance to the ministry of education and society at large. It will certainly help to identify the basic visual instructional materials for teaching and learning of biology. This is equally of great importance to the secondary students, since it will help to identify the instructional materials that are lacking in secondary schools and make necessary provision for them.
1.6 Scope of the Study.
The study focus on the uses and effects of vschoolinstructional materials in teaching biology in secondary school.
1.7 Limitation of the study.
The study is based on the effect of using visual instructional materials in teaching science subject- biology in secondary schools. The research was limited to secondary school.
1. Adeniyi 2000. The effect of instructional materials in teaching.
2. Basset M.P. 2002. Availability of resources for the teaching of science subject in public secondary schools. A case study of some selected secondary schools.
3. Emma and Ajayi 2004. The use of instructional materials in Teaching.
4. Ijaduola U. 1997. The effect of instructional materials on the learning and teaching of economics in secondary school.