1.1   Background to the Study

 Socialization which is the process of learning and inculcating the correct and acceptable ways of living in a particular society especially by children, is a practical exercise which are imbibed more unconsciously than consciously. The child learns faster when the teaching process engages all his senses rather than just one or at most two. Here we are looking at the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of social studies with a focus on primary schools.

However, it is worthy of note that the instructional materials referred to and treated herein aren’t tools like pencils and pens and the white board, etc. We are referring, rather, to the graphical rendition of lessons, the literatures on lessons that accompany the teacher’s classes, the pictorial and life imitation of themes and so on. For Angela Janovsky, instructional materials are:

 the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material.

She enumerates, among other things, graphic organizers, traditional resources and teacher-made resources as the different major types of instructional materials.

 The goal of social studies especially at primary level is to inculcate in the kids acceptable cultural codes to live by. Put this way, it is not difficult, then , to see that the methods of teaching social studies should mirror the learning process that is unconscious so that what is learnt would unconsciously dictate the child’s behaviours and social choices without the child actively thinking about it.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Teaching and learning are two different things. They are informed by different things and engage its subjects and objects differently. The more this relations of teaching and learning are closing in gap and one smoothly completing the other, the more productive both are seeing that the one aims at giving while the other aims at receiving completely.

However, often times the teaching methods doesn’t align with the learning methods and since it is the job of the former to fashion itself after the needs and pace of the latter, teachers have to device different workable instructional materials that will suit the student’s academic needs.

This problem, the demand for additional teaching tools, is what this present research work has set out to engage. But its is going to be doing so in regards to the teaching of social studies.

1.3   Research Questions

1.3.1      What are the instructional materials that work best at the primary level

1.3.2      What are the instructional materials that work best in teaching social studies particular

1.3.3      What percentage of students learning performance is owing to the adequate use of instructional materials.

1.4   Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this research work is to analyze and discuss at length the use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies to primary school pupils. In order to achieve this the following are the objectives that the present writer aims at reaching:

1.4.1      to provide the different categories of instructional materials there are in order to see clearly how teachers can employ them and enumerate in details different methods teachers can make use.

1.4.2      We also hope to, while carrying out this studies, to study the different topographical factors that influences the various methods and materials that work best for each child in the inculcation of acceptable social behaviours.

1.4.3      Lastly, this research hopes to distinguish the instructional materials that are specific to social studies away from learning in general and also the ones for the primary school.



1.5   Significance of the Study

This research work aims at shedding light on the complexities of teaching social studies, making formatters gain better insight on the traditional instructional resources and how to update them to use for the teaching of social studies.

1.6   Research Hypothesis

This work is predicated upon the assumption that physical tools like rulers and pencils and boards are different from what we generally refer to as instructional materials. Again, it assumes that the teaching, and by implication, the learning process relies greatly on instructional materials especially in the teaching and learning of social studies in primary school level.

1.7   Scope of the Study

While the object here namely instructional materials are relevant in teaching and learning up to university level where graphs are employed in lecturing, thus study will concentrate itself on the primary school level. The present writer recognizes that will greatly inform the areas that this research emphasizes.

On the scope of the study, the use of instructional materials studied here will focus on this use as it pertains to the subject of social studies.



1.8   Limitations of the Study

Many things conspired to pose as limitations to this study namely time frame, space and access to primary and secondary case studies.

1.9   Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials

These are all the tools employed by the teacher in order to ease the learning process and make it possible. This includes everything from textbooks which are designed in a way that the child can read and understand and further practice with.

Social Studies

This is a primary and secondary subject whose curriculum is designed to teach the child acceptable social behaviours and the consequences of going contrary to these codes of conducts.

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