1.1 Background To The Study
The Cashless application policy implies an economy in which transactions can be conducted without the use of physical cash in the exchange, purchase and sale of goods and services through the use of debit card, credit card to facilitate such transactions. .This is a policy initiative of the central bank of Nigeria aimed to further improve the financial sector of the economy. However it is expected that the implementation shall receive commendation from the end users (Ejiro, 2012). The CBN regulations regarding the cashless policy provides a daily cumulative limit of N150, 000 and N1, 000,000 on free cash withdrawals and lodgments by corporate and individual customers respectively in the Lagos State beginning from March 30, 2012. Consequently the regulations stipulate a service charge for any cash transaction above the CBN provides cashless policy guideline involving Individuals and corporate organizations. Also cheques drafted for a 3rd party above N150, 000 shall be received through the clearing house and not be eligible for encashment over the counter with effect from January 1, 2012. This therefore required that All Nigerian banks cease cash in transit lodgment services rendered to merchant-customers from January 1, 2012. The cashless application policy also provided for easy transfer of funds through the use of information technology thereby reducing waste of time in the bank. The implementation of cashless policy began in Lagos State, Nigeria. This is because of the high volume of business and financial transaction in Lagos state according to Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, 2011) . It is believed that its full implementation shall cut down the cost of maintaining cash based economy. The research seek to proffer an investigation on improving security in cashless application.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The CBN cash policy implementation implies a reduction in physical cash transaction and more dependence on technologies provided for the purpose. But the nature of the Nigerian economy poses a great challenge as to the security of financial transaction conducted over the ATM and the use of other technologies and facility provided for the cashless policy implementations. Many cases of fund loss have been recorded concerning ATM transactions and the use of other technologies. Also the poor level of illiteracy,commnunication network and internet facility poses further challenge to the effective and safe implementation of the cashless policy. The use of credit cards and debit cards often do not meet customer cash needs and the security situation around the facility had in recent times brought under security challenge. Consequently the
Problem confronting the research is to proffer an appraisal on improving security in casheless application
1.3 Objectives of the Study
To proffer an appraisal on improving security in casheless application
1.4 Research Questions
What is casheless application?
What is the requirement for improving security in casheless application?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study shall proffer appraisal on the requirement for improving security in casheless application
1.6 Research Hypothesis
Ho The security challenges in cashless application is low
Hi The security challenges in cashless application is high
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the appraisal on improving security in casheless application
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The study was confronted by some constraints including logistics and geographical factor.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Access Products- Products that allow consumers to access traditional payment instrument electronically, generally from remote locations
ATM Card- An ATM card (also known as a bank card, client card, key card, or cash card) is a payment card provided by a financial institution to its customers which enables the customer to use an automated teller machine (ATM) for transactions such as: deposits, cash withdrawals, obtaining account information, and other types of banking transactions, often through interbank networks.
CBN - Central Bank of Nigeria.
Chip Card- Also known as an integrated circuit (IC) Card. A card containing one or more computers chips or integrated circuits for identification, data storage or special purpose processing used to validate personal identification numbers, authorize purchases, verify account balances and store personal records.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)- The transfer of information between organizations in machine readable form.
Electronic Money- Monetary value measured in currency units stored in electronic form on an electronic device in the consumer’s possession. This electronic value can be purchased and held on the device until reduced through purchase or transfer.
Internet Banking- This is a product that enables the Bank leverage on the Internet Banking System Module in-built on the new Banking Application (BANKS) implemented by the Bank to serve the Internet Banking needs of the Bank’s customers.
Mobile Banking - This is a product that offers Customers of a Bank to access services as you go. Customer can make their transactions anywhere such as account balance, transaction enquiries, stop checks, and other customer’s service instructions, Balance Inquiry, Account Verification, Bill Payment, Electronic fund transfer, Account Balances, updates and history, Customer service via mobile, Transfer between accounts etc.
Payment System- A financial system that establishes that means for transferring money between suppliers and of fund, usually by exchanging debits or Credits between financial institutions.
Point Of Sale (POS) Machine - A Point-of-Sale machine facilitates customer payment, withdrawals , fund transfer needs and the provision of credit/debit Balance Inquiry, Airtime Vending, Loyalty Redemption, Printing mini statement etc.
Smart Card- A Card which is embedded with a computer chip, on which financial health, educational, and security information can be stored and processed.
Transaction Alert – The transaction alert is to provide for the tracking of customer debit and credit transactions on their accounts. The alert system also informs the customer other financial transaction of the bank involving the customer.
Western Union Money Transfer (WUMT) – This is a facility which enables the transfer of money from foreign countries into the country. This is a facility used by business men, families and relatives for the transfer of money to their counterparts.