PERCEPTIONS OF BUSINESS EDUCATION STUDENTS ON THE RELEVANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AT THE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION LEVEL
The researchers empirically investigated the perceptions of Business Education Students on the relevance of Entrepreneurship Education at the Colleges of Education in Edo State. In order to investigate this study, the researchers raised three (3) research questions and one hypothesis. Related literaturewas reviewed and the Entrepreneurial Event Model (EEM) developed by Shapero and Sokol in 1982 was adapted as the conceptual framework for the study. The framework showed at a glance the various stages and processes that eventually climaxed into business formation. The survey design was used in the study. Eight hundred and ten (810) Business Education students from both Colleges of Education in the state formed the population of the study out of which a sample size of one hundred and sixty two (162) students was selected using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The instrument used was the questionnaire titled: Business Education Students’ Perceptions of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (BESPEEQ) and it was divided into two sections – A and B. Section A consist of the demographic information of the respondents while section B consist of thirteen (13) opinion statements structured in a 4-point rating scale. The instrument was validated by three (3) experts and the test re-test method of reliability was used in obtaining reliability co-efficient of 0.78. The instrument was administered to the respondents with the help of research assistants and the data collated was subjected to statistical analyses. The descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that entrepreneurial have relevance in entrepreneurship. It also revealed that skills and entrepreneurship education have influence on economic development; and that there was no significant difference between the perceptions of male and female business education students on the relevance of entrepreneurship Education. One of the recommendations advanced by the researchers was that there should be conscious efforts by educators to properly transmit the entrepreneurial skills to the learners with ease.
The teaching and learning of Entrepreneurship Education in tertiary institutions is of paramount interest to all stakeholders. The National Policy on Education describes Education as an instrument ‘par excellence’ for effecting national development (FRN, 2004). It is conceived that education is capable of bringing about the desired socio-economic and political changes in the country. The recent call for the inclusion of Entrepreneurship Education in tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria is an indication of its importance to employment creation; as Nigeria continues to churn out graduates from our various institutions that are hardly self reliant but solely dependent on white collar jobs for sustenance because they lack adequate skills that will make them function effectively and efficiently towards the development of the economy.
In the western world, the need to recognizing entrepreneurship education started to gain prominence immediately after the Second World War. After the World War 11 that lasted for a period of six (6) years (1939 - 1945), there was evidence of collapse of most of the structures of the economy thereby making it impossible for the government to fully absorb all the graduates of the educational system. Though the situation during those periods were not the same with what was obtainable in developing countries like Nigeria. The discovery of crude oil at Oloibiri in the 1950s subsequently led to oil boom in the country and there were enough funds in the government treasury to fully absorb all the graduates of the educational system at various levels. The collapse of the oil boom thereby leading to economic recession in the country with its accompanying problems – unemployment, poverty and othe social vices like kidnapping, youth restiveness, and Boko Haram insurgency redirected the focus of Nigerians. The increasing level of unemployment in the country was what informed the introduction of entrepreneurship education in 2006 by the Federal Government to remedy the problems of unemployment, poverty and unrest in the country (Ediagbonya, 2013; Imeokparia & Ediagbonya, 2013).
The Federal Government made the programme compulsory for students of higher education institutions irrespective of area of specialization and in most tertiary institutions, entrepreneurship education has been adopted as a compulsory general studies course for students. The overall objective is to continuously foster entrepreneurship culture and spirit amongst students and faculty with a view to educating them as well as supporting graduates of the system towards establishing and also maintaining sustainable business ventures (Urbano, Aponte & Toledano, 2008). The Minister of education stressed that the National Universities Commission (NUC) was given presidential directives by the Ministry of Education to supervise and coordinate the programme of introducing entrepreneurship education in Nigerian institutions of higher learning in collaboration with all regulatory bodies of higher institutions - the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) to be handled by the committee set up by the Federal Government.
As a nation, Nigeria has been working tirelessly since the collapse of oil boom to achieve youth independence, poverty eradication and improved economic status through several reforms and programme initiatives such as the Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP), Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), National Directorate of Employment (NDE) among others. Regrettably, however these programme initiatives aimed at capacity building and utilization seem not to have helped in any way to equip young school leavers (Youths) with appropriate skills that will empower them after graduation from school (Okolocha & Okolocha, 2012).
Despite strong economic growth, youth’s full – time unemployment rate for 2006-2008 in Nigeria was put at 55.9%. Till today, youth unemployment has continued to be on the increase. Countries like Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, China, India, Korea, to mention a few, have joined the community of industrialized nations by strengthening their small scale industries. Nigeria on its part is equally trying to join other industrialized countries by 2020. It is in a bid to bridge the gap between youth unemployment and job creation that the Federal Ministry of Education made entrepreneurship education one of the compulsory general studies for students in tertiary institutions across the country to inculcate in the youths the spirit of self reliance, which has become essential for national economic growth and development. The essence of entrepreneurship education is to build in the students entrepreneurship spirit and culture (Akpomi, 2009; Adejimola & Olufunmilayo, 2009). Entrepreneurship education has emphasis on education for self-employment rather than education for paid employment. This kind of education has become so important in Nigeria owing to the high level of unemployment coupled with its accompanying social vices and unrest. It is believed that this kind of education is capable of meaningfully engaging the individuals and making them more productive and useful to themselves and the country at large.
The growth and development of the economy depends largely on the kind of skills that the graduates of our educational institutions are equipped with. According to Ihebereme (2010), skill acquisition is the process of acquiring or gaining effective and ready knowledge in developing ones aptitude and ability in a particular field. Skill acquisition is one among the policies embarked upon in Nigeria with the sole aim to alleviate poverty, youth restiveness, sophisticated crime and corruption rate; rural – urban drift, unemployment and other social vices (Ihebereme, 2010). Skill acquisition in Nigeria tertiary education level is meant to equip our students with more practical and less theoretical knowledge on income generating skills. Mbionwu (2008) noted that when youths are given adequate training in skills, they can be self-employed after schooling; hence they become active partners in both community and national development. The possession of skill is important in preventing youths from becoming social misfit. Ihebereme (2008) opined that skill acquisition (Entrepreneurship) education in Nigerian educational system acts as a rehabilitator, re-orientator, motivator and empowered to the under-privileged (students of poor parents). These skills are described as entrepreneurial skills (Akudolu, 2010).
Okolocha and Okolocha (2012) described entrepreneurship skills as business skills which one acquires to function effectively in the turbulent business environment as an independent or self-employed person in order to improve one’s economic status and the society at large. The result of the study carried out by Okebukola (2006) confirmed that most Nigerian graduates are deficient in self-reliance and entrepreneurial skills. In a similar vein, Anyakoha (1997) as cited by Olumese and Clark (2011) stressed that training for entrepreneurship skill development is not currently well articulated by Nigerian universities. The importance of entrepreneurial skill cannot be over-emphasized since appropriate skill acquisition through entrepreneurship will help to make young school leavers’ to be self-reliant and boost their economic states. Isike (2008) stated that entrepreneurship has been identified globally and nationally as a tool for generating a sustainable economy which is the core value of the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategies (NEEDS). Uloko and Ejinkonye (2010) remarked that when youths are empowered through the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills, there is the possibility that they will use the skills to create new avenues for wealth. Empowering the youths to set up businesses involves proper acquisition of skills through education and training. In a study carried out by Egwanyenga and Ranor (2012), the authors concluded that the entrepreneurial skills are: managerial skills, accounting and financial competency skills, marketing and sales, general business and human relations skills. The entrepreneurial skills possessed by graduates are perceived in different ways by stakeholders.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Entrepreneurship education which is a sort of intervention programme which was introduced into Nigeria’s tertiary education sub-sector in 2006 to remedy the unemployment challenge; and redirect the attention of our youths/graduates towards job creation by instilling in them relevant entrepreneurial skills that will positively grow and develop the economy. The goals and objectives of the programme seem laudable and for these goals and objectives to be achieved, some machinery has to be put in place. The relevance of this programme in the curriculum of all tertiary institutions in Nigeria is geared at creating an entrepreneurial culture and entrepreneurial spirits in the students. Since the introduction of this programme, there seems to be increase in graduates’ unemployment. For instance, the unemployment rate as at 2006 was 5.3 percent but as at 2011, it has risen up to 23.9 percent. Many graduates seem to be roaming the streets in search for white collar jobs. The rate of poverty, corruption and so many other social vices has become worrisome to the government and to every well meaning citizen despite the introduction of entrepreneurship education. This state of affair is of great concern to the researchers and if this trend continues, it will leave no one in doubt to question the relevance of entrepreneurship education in the school curriculum.
The main purpose of this research work was to find out the perceptions of Business Education students on the relevance of Entrepreneurship Education.
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
This study adopted survey design since it was basically an enquiry into the perceptions of Business Education students’ on the relevance of Entrepreneurship Education in Colleges of Education in Edo State. This is in agreement with Nworgu (1991) as cited in Omoroguiwa (2006) that a research survey is one in which a group of people or items is studied by collection and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative of the entire population.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of this study consists of all year three Business Education students that offered Entrepreneurship Education in the Colleges of Education in Edo State. The total population was 810 students.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The sample size for the study was 162 students representing 20% of the population. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing up the sample from the entire population and which is considered to be representative of the whole population.
Table 1: Distribution of Population and Sample of Business Education Students in Colleges of Education-Ekiadolor and College of Education-Igueben
POPULATION OF BUSINESS EDUCATION STUDENTS
Sample Size of Business Education Students
College of Education, Ekiadolor 310 62
College of Education, Igueben 500 100
Total 810 162
Source: The Institutions’ Admission Officers
The instrument used for this study was a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was used in eliciting information from the respondent and it was titled: Business Education Students’ Perceptions of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (BESPEEQ).It was divided into two parts – A and B. Part A consisted of the demographic variables of the respondent while part B consists of five (5) sections with twenty six (26) opinion statements designed in a 4-Point Rating Scale showing Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), Disagreed (D) and Strongly Disagreed (SD).
VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
The instrument was subjected to content and face validity. It was given to two experts in Measurement and Evaluation and Business Education in the Faculty of Education, University of Benin (UNIBEN) and their inputs to the draft instrument were incorporated into the final questionnaire.
RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
A test re – test method was used in establishing the reliability of the questionnaire. The instrument was administered to twenty (20) respondents in the population who were not part of the sample. It was re-administered after two weeks on the same respondents. The two scores were analyzed using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient (r) formula and the reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The researchers utilized the face to face method of data collection. The researchers engaged the services of two (2) research assistants who were exposed to a short training on how to go about the data collection in the institutions for the study; copies of the questionnaire were thereafter collated by the researchers.
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The descriptive statistics used included frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation and they were used in answering all the research questions, while t – test was used to analyze the hypothesis formulated for the study at 0.05 level of significance. Any mean value of 2.50 and above was considered as accepted while below 2.50 was considered as rejected.
DATA ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
The descriptive statistic adopted in analyzing the demographic variable was the simple percentage (%).